Carrie Lam Wins Hong Kong Election Amid Reports of Central Government Interference

March 27, 2017

Carrie Lam Cheng Yuet-ngor was elected by Hong Kong's 1,194-member Election Committee as the city's fourth Chief Executive (CE) on March 26, 2017, in the first CE election since the fall 2014 pro-democracy protests. Chinese central government officials and representatives pressured Election Committee members to support Lam over other candidates during the nomination period and election campaign, according to observers. The restricted composition of the Election Committee ensures support for the Chief Executive candidate approved by Chinese authorities, despite provisions in Hong Kong’s Basic Law guaranteeing political autonomy and democratic development for Hong Kong.

“Small-Circle Election” First Since Fall 2014 Pro-Democracy Protests

Hong Kong’s fifth Chief Executive (CE) election took place on March 26, 2017. It was the first since both the fall 2014 pro-democracy protests (popularly known as “Occupy Central” or the “Umbrella Movement”) and since the June 2015 defeat of the Hong Kong government’s electoral reform bill.[1] The fall 2014 protests began after the National People’s Congress Standing Committee (NPCSC) issued an August 2014 decision determining the parameters of future electoral reform proposals in Hong Kong, a decision that restricted the ability of candidates to freely run for CE.[2] The 2017 CE election—referred to by some as a “small-circle election” due to the small percentage of Hong Kong residents eligible to vote[3]—was held under the same procedure as the 2012 election, as set forth in the 2014 NPCSC decision.[4]

Tsang, Woo, and Lam Nominated

In December 2016, incumbent CE Leung Chun-ying, known as CY Leung, announced he would not seek reelection.[5] Several days later, approximately 107,000 electors voted to elect most members of the Election Committee,[6] which both nominates candidates and elects the Chief Executive.[7] The committee’s 38 subsectors consist of members of trade and business interest groups—including corporations—District and Legislative Councilors, religious bodies, and national legislators,[8] the composition of which reportedly ensures support for the central government and its policies.[9] In the December elections, pro-democratic candidates won a record high of approximately 326 seats.[10]

Three candidates secured the 150 Election Committee nominations required[11] to run in the election: former Financial Secretary John Tsang Chun-wah, with 165 nominations; former judge Woo Kwok-hing, with 180; and former Chief Secretary Carrie Lam Cheng Yuet-ngor, with 580.[12] Under the Chief Executive Election Ordinance, the candidate receiving at least 601 votes—as opposed to nominations—wins the election.[13]

Reported Interference by Central Government, Pressure on Electors

Reports emerged during the nomination period that, as in the 2012 CE election,[14] the Chinese central government sought to determine the outcome of the election, pressuring Election Committee members to support Lam over other candidates.[15] In early February, NPCSC Chairman Zhang Dejiang and other representatives of the central government reportedly met with Election Committee members in Shenzhen municipality, Guangdong province, telling them the central government only supported Lam in the election.[16] Later in February, Hong Kong’s first CE and current Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference vice chairman Tung Chee-hwa reportedly said that the Chinese central government would not appoint anyone it deemed unacceptable as Chief Executive.[17] Tung reportedly said that the central government “doesn’t trust [Tsang].”[18] All 30 Election Committee members of the legal sector issued a joint statement in response, saying they were “deeply concerned” at Tung’s remarks and condemning “any attempt to exert pressure or influence . . . [the] Election Committee . . ..”[19]

Reported statements by central government officials in the lead-up to the election asserted the central government’s power to disregard election results. Hong Kong National People’s Congress delegates told reporters that in March, Zhang Dejiang asserted the central government’s “right to step in” to the CE election[20] and said the central government required the CE to “love the country and love Hong Kong” and have the central government’s trust.[21] Other central government officials reiterated the central government’s interest in the election, saying it touched on questions of the central government’s “substantive power” to appoint the CE[22] and that the central government had criteria any CE would have to meet.[23]

Basic Law and International Standards Commit Hong Kong to Free and Fair Elections, Guarantee Autonomy

Article 45 of the Basic Law—Hong Kong’s constitutional document—provides that “the ultimate aim is the selection of the Chief Executive by universal suffrage upon nomination by a broadly representative nominating committee.”[24] In addition, article 22 provides that “[n]o department of the Central People’s Government . . . may interfere in the affairs which the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region administers on its own . . ..”[25]

The United Nations Human Rights Committee has repeatedly urged Hong Kong to enact reforms to implement elections by universal suffrage, in accordance with article 25 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR),[26] which applies to Hong Kong under the Basic Law.[27] In the concluding observations to its 2013 review of Hong Kong’s compliance with the ICCPR, the Committee wrote that Hong Kong “should take all necessary measures to implement universal and equal suffrage . . . as a matter of priority for all future elections.”[28] During the fall 2014 pro-democracy protests, the Committee reiterated its concerns over restrictions on the ability of candidates to freely run for election,[29] with one Committee member noting that “Beijing wants to vet [CE] candidates . . ..”[30]

Carrie Lam Wins 777 Votes, To Take Office July 1

On March 26, 2017, Carrie Lam Cheng Yuet-ngor won 777 votes in Hong Kong’s Chief Executive Election Committee, out of a possible total of 1,194.[31] John Tsang Chun-wah and Woo Kwok-hing won 365 and 21 votes, respectively.[32] Lam's victory came despite multiple public opinion polls during the campaign showing Tsang leading both Lam and Woo.[33] Lam will take office on July 1, the 20th anniversary of Hong Kong’s handover.
 

For more information on democratic development in Hong Kong, see Section VI—Developments in Hong Kong and Macau in the CECC 2015 Annual Report, pp. 325–35 and Section VI—Developments in Hong Kong and Macau in the CECC 2016 Annual Report, pp. 328–40.



[1] James Pomfret and Clare Baldwin, “Mystery Walk-Out in Hong Kong Vote Brings Heavy Defeat for Beijing,” Reuters, 18 June 15 (http://uk.reuters.com/article/2015/06/18/uk-hongkong-politics-vote-idUKKBN0OY1PJ20150618); “Political Reform Rejected by Large 28:8 Margin” [28:8 zheng gai da bi shu foujue], Ming Pao, 18 June 15 (http://news.mingpao.com/pns/28%EF%BC%9A8%E6%94%BF%E6%94%B9%E5%A4%A7%E6%AF%94%E6%95%B8%E5%90%A6%E6%B1%BA-%E5%BB%BA%E5%88%B6%E6%B4%BE%E6%8B%96%E5%BB%B6%E5%A4%B1%E8%AA%A4/web_tc/article/20150619/s00001/1434651339344). See also Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China [Zhonghua renmin gongheguo xianggang tebie xingzheng qu jiben fa], passed 4 April 90, effective 1 July 97, annex I, instrument 2 (http://www.cecc.gov/resources/legal-provisions/basic-law-of-the-hong-kong-special-administrative-region-of-the-peoples); CECC, 2015 Annual Report, 8 October 15, 325–26 (http://www.cecc.gov/sites/chinacommission.house.gov/files/2016%20Annual%20Report.pdf).

[2] Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress on Issues Relating to the Selection of the Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region by Universal Suffrage and on the Method for Forming the Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in the Year 2016 [Quanguo renmin daibiao dahui changwu weiyuanhui guanyu xianggang tebie xingzheng qu xingzheng zhangguan puxuan wenti he 2016 nian lifa hui changsheng banfa de jueding], issued 31 August 14, reprinted in Xinhua, sec. 4 (http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/2014-08/31/c_1112298240.htm); Michael Forsythe, “U.N. Urges China To Allow Free Elections in Hong Kong,” New York Times, 23 October 14 (https://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/24/world/asia/un-urges-china-to-allow-free-elections-in-hong-kong.html); Stephanie Nebehay, “U.N. Rights Watchdog Calls for Open Elections in Hong Kong,” Reuters, 23 October 14 (http://in.reuters.com/article/hongkong-china-un-idINKCN0IC1IQ20141023).

[3] Yuen Chan, “Hong Kong’s Pro-Democracy Movement Changes Strategy,” Al Jazeera, 6 December 16 (http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2016/12/hong-kong-pro-democracy-movement-election-161205065003667.html); “Group Marches To Protest Small-Circle CE Election” [Tuanti youxing kangyi teshou xiao quanzi xuanju], i-Cable, 5 February 17 (http://cablenews.i-cable.com/ci/videopage/news/498877/%E5%8D%B3%E6%99%82%E6%96%B0%E8%81%9E/%E5%9C%98%E9%AB%94%E9%81%8A%E8%A1%8C%E6%8A%97%E8%AD%B0%E7%89%B9%E9%A6%96%E5%B0%8F%E5%9C%88%E5%AD%90%E9%81%B8%E8%88%89).

[4] Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress on Issues Relating to the Selection of the Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region by Universal Suffrage and on the Method for Forming the Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in the Year 2016 [Quanguo renmin daibiao dahui changwu weiyuanhui guanyu xianggang tebie xingzheng qu xingzheng zhangguan puxuan wenti he 2016 nian lifa hui changsheng banfa de jueding], issued 31 August 14, reprinted in Xinhua, sec. 4 (http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/2014-08/31/c_1112298240.htm); Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress on Issues Relating to the Methods for Selecting the Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and for Forming the Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in the Year 2012 and on Issues Relating to Universal Suffrage [Quanguo renda changweihui guanyu xianggang tebie xingzheng qu 2012 nian xingzheng zhangguan he lifa hui chansheng banfa ji youguan puxuan wenti de jueding], issued 29 December 07, para. 4 (http://www.npc.gov.cn/npc/xinwen/syxw/2007-12/29/content_1387576.htm); Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China [Zhonghua renmin gongheguo xianggang tebie xingzheng qu jiben fa], passed 4 April 90, effective 1 July 97, art. 45, annex I, instrument 2 (http://www.cecc.gov/resources/legal-provisions/basic-law-of-the-hong-kong-special-administrative-region-of-the-peoples).

[5] Hong Kong Information Services Department, “Transcript of Remarks by CE” [Xingzheng zhangguan huijian chuanmei tanhua quanwen], 9 December 16 (http://www.info.gov.hk/gia/general/201612/09/P2016120900795.htm).

[6] Stuart Lau et al., “Hong Kong Financial Secretary Tsang Resigns, Paving Way for Tilt at City’s Top Job,” South China Morning Post, 13 December 16 (http://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/2054005/hong-kong-financial-secretary-tsang-resigns-paving-way-tilt); Joyce Ng et al., “Pro-Democracy Camp Takes Record Quarter of Seats on Election Committee That Will Choose Hong Kong’s Leader,” South China Morning Post, 12 December 16 (http://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/2053833/pro-democracy-filmmaker-makes-breakthrough-win-seat-election). Three subsectors—religious bodies, National People’s Congress delegates, and Legislative Councilors—separately chose a total of 166 Election Committee members. Electoral Affairs Commission, “2016 Election Committee Subsector Elections—Facts and Figures,” last visited 15 March 17 (http://www.elections.gov.hk/ecss2016/eng/figures.html); Electoral Affairs Commission, “2016 Election Committee Subsector Elections—Election Results,” 12 December 16 (http://www.elections.gov.hk/ecss2016/eng/results.html?1490296878979).

[7] Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Chief Executive Election Ordinance (Cap. 569) [Di 569 zhang xingzheng zhangguan xuanju tiaoli], amended 9 February 12, secs. 7, 16 (https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap569!en@2016-06-10T00:00:00).

[8] Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Chief Executive Election Ordinance (Cap. 569) [Di 569 zhang xingzheng zhangguan xuanju tiaoli], amended 9 February 12, Schedule (https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap569!en@2016-06-10T00:00:00); Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Legislative Council Ordinance (Cap. 542) [Di 542 zhang lifa hui tiaoli], amended 1 October 12, sec. 20 (https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap542!en@2016-06-10T00:00:00); Electoral Affairs Commission, “2016 Election Committee Subsector Elections—Facts and Figures,” last visited 15 March 17 (http://www.elections.gov.hk/ecss2016/eng/figures.html).

[9] Freedom House, “Freedom in the World 2017—Hong Kong,” last visited 17 March 17 (https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2017/hong-kong); Ng Kang-chung and Gary Cheung, “As Aspirants for Hong Kong’s Top Job Announce Their Bids, Focus Turns to Where Beijing’s Favour Lies,” South China Morning Post, 17 January 17 (http://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/2062639/aspirants-hong-kongs-top-job-announce-their-bids-focus-turns); Kelvin Chan, “Hong Kong Set To Pick New Leader Anointed by Beijing,” Associated Press, 21 March 17 (http://bigstory.ap.org/article/5e347ac65345499b85f968765db0ae0f/hong-kong-set-pick-leader-anointed-beijing).

[10] Kris Cheng, “Pro-Democracy Camp Wins More Than a Quarter of Seats on Chief Exec. Election Committee,” Hong Kong Free Press, 12 December 16 (https://www.hongkongfp.com/2016/12/12/pro-democracy-camp-wins-more-than-a-quarter-of-seats-on-chief-exec-election-committee/); Joyce Ng et al., “Pro-Democracy Camp Takes Record Quarter of Seats on Election Committee That Will Choose Hong Kong’s Leader,” South China Morning Post, 12 December 16 (http://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/2053833/pro-democracy-filmmaker-makes-breakthrough-win-seat-election).

[11] Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Chief Executive Election Ordinance (Cap. 569) [Di 569 zhang xingzheng zhangguan xuanju tiaoli], amended 9 February 12, sec. 16(2) (https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap569!en@2016-06-10T00:00:00).

[12] Hong Kong Information Services Department, “Three Validly Nominated Candidates for Chief Executive Election” [Xingzheng zhangguan xuanju gong you san ming huo youxiao timing houxuanren], 1 March 17 (http://www.info.gov.hk/gia/general/201703/01/P2017030100767.htm?fontSize=1); Kris Cheng, “Explainer: Why Hong Kong’s Leadership Race Is Neither Free, Fair, Nor Representative,” Hong Kong Free Press, 27 February 17 (https://www.hongkongfp.com/2017/02/27/explainer-hong-kongs-leadership-race-neither-free-fair-representative/). A fourth candidate, Regina Ip Lau Suk-yee, did not win enough nominations to qualify. Ng Kang-chung and Jeffie Lam, “Regina Ip ‘Squeezed Out’ of Hong Kong Chief Executive Race,” South China Morning Post, 1 March 17 (http://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/2075125/regina-ip-drops-out-hong-kong-chief-executive-race).

[13] Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Chief Executive Election Ordinance (Cap. 569) [Di 569 zhang xingzheng zhangguan xuanju tiaoli], amended 9 February 12, sec. 27 (https://www.elegislation.gov.hk/hk/cap569!en@2016-06-10T00:00:00).

[14] See, e.g., “Beijing Lobbies in Push for a Leung Victory,” South China Morning Post, 21 March 12 (http://www.scmp.com/article/996111/beijing-lobbies-push-leung-victory); Keith Bradsher, “Beijing Switches Sides in the Race for Hong Kong’s Chief Executive,” New York Times, 21 March 12 (http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/22/world/asia/beijing-switches-support-in-race-for-hong-kong-chief.html).

[15] See, e.g., John Lyons, “Beijing Works the Phones in Secret Push To Pick Hong Kong’s Next Leader,” Wall Street Journal, 28 February 17 (https://www.wsj.com/articles/in-hong-kong-elections-beijings-shadow-looms-large-1488288813).

[16] See, e.g., “In Recent Meeting With Pro-Establishment Camp in Shenzhen, Zhang Dejiang Says Central Government Only Backs Carrie Lam, Denies Handpicking” [Jinri shenzhen wu jianzhi pai zhang dejiang cheng zhongyang zhi cheng lin zheng fouren qindian], Ming Pao, 6 February 17 (http://news.mingpao.com/pns/dailynews/web_tc/article/20170207/s00001/1486403894426); “Information Confirms Zhang Dejiang Came South To ‘Secure Votes,’ Estimated Carrie Lam Still Has Not Reached Desired 700 Nominations” [Xiaoxi zheng zhang dejiang nanxia “gu piao” liao lin zheng 700 timing wei biaoda], HK01, 6 February 17 (https://www.hk01.com/%E7%89%B9%E9%A6%96%E9%81%B8%E8%88%892017/69927/-%E7%89%B9%E9%A6%96%E9%81%B8%E8%88%89-%E6%B6%88%E6%81%AF%E8%AD%89%E5%BC%B5%E5%BE%B7%E6%B1%9F%E5%8D%97%E4%B8%8B-%E7%AE%8D%E7%A5%A8-%E6%96%99%E6%9E%97%E9%84%AD700%E6%8F%90%E5%90%8D%E6%9C%AA%E9%81%94%E6%A8%99); “Zhang Dejiang Meets Pro-Establishment Election Committee [Members]; Central Government Only Supports Carrie Lam” [Zhang dejiang jian jianzhi xuan wei zhongyang weiyi zhichi lin zheng], Sing Tao Daily, 7 February 17 (http://std.stheadline.com/daily/news-content.php?id=1545690&target=2).

[17] Gary Cheung et al., “Beijing Won’t Appoint Winner of Chief Executive Race if It Finds Candidate ‘Unacceptable,’ Elder Statesman Tung Chee-hwa Warns,” South China Morning Post, 22 February 17 (http://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/2072986/beijing-wont-appoint-unacceptable-candidate-even-if-they-win).

[18] Gary Cheung et al., “Beijing Won’t Appoint Winner of Chief Executive Race if It Finds Candidate ‘Unacceptable,’ Elder Statesman Tung Chee-hwa Warns,” South China Morning Post, 22 February 17 (http://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/2072986/beijing-wont-appoint-unacceptable-candidate-even-if-they-win).

[19] “Legal Sector Election Committee Members: Deeply Concerned by Tung Chee-hwa’s Remarks, Any Use of Threats To Attempt To Influence Nomination Could Constitute Incitement To Commit Crime” [Falu jie xuanwei: shenqie guanzhu dong jianhua yanlun renhe weixie shouduan tu yingxiang timing huo goucheng shanhuo fanzui], Stand News, 23 February 17 (https://www.thestandnews.com/politics/%E6%B3%95%E5%BE%8B%E7%95%8C%E9%81%B8%E5%A7%94-%E6%B7%B1%E5%88%87%E9%97%9C%E6%B3%A8%E8%91%A3%E5%BB%BA%E8%8F%AF%E8%A8%80%E8%AB%96-%E4%BB%BB%E4%BD%95%E5%A8%81%E8%84%85%E6%89%8B%E6%AE%B5%E5%9C%96%E5%BD%B1%E9%9F%BF%E6%8F%90%E5%90%8D-%E6%88%96%E6%A7%8B%E6%88%90%E7%85%BD%E6%83%91%E7%8A%AF%E7%BD%AA/).

[20] Venus Wu and Clare Jim, “China Has the Right To ‘Step In’ to Hong Kong Election, Top Official Says,” Reuters, 6 March 17 (http://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-parliament-hongkong-idUSKBN16D127).

[21] Tony Cheung and Emily Tsang, “Beijing Has Last Word in Hong Kong Leadership Race, Delegates Told,” South China Morning Post, 5 March 17 (http://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/politics/article/2076087/cy-leungs-seat-reflects-outgoing-hong-kong-ces-new-status).

[22] “Qiao Xiaoyang Says Central Government’s Right To Appoint CE Is Substantive, but Not Targeted at Anyone in Particular” [Qiao xiaoyang zhi zhongyang dui teshou renming quan shi shizhixing dan bu zhendui teding na ren], Radio Television Hong Kong, 8 March 17 (http://news.rthk.hk/rthk/ch/component/k2/1317913-20170308.htm).

[23] “Wang Guangya: Central Government’s Interest in CE Election Reasonable” [Wang guangya: zhongyang guanzhu teshou xuanju wukehoufei], Now News, 8 March 17 (http://news.now.com/home/local/player?newsId=213349).

[24] Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China [Zhonghua renmin gongheguo xianggang tebie xingzheng qu jiben fa], passed 4 April 90, effective 1 July 97, art. 43, 45 (http://www.cecc.gov/resources/legal-provisions/basic-law-of-the-hong-kong-special-administrative-region-of-the-peoples). Article 45 also holds that the CE must be both “selected by election or through consultations held locally” and also “appointed by the Central People’s Government,” while article 43 specifies that the CE is “accountable to the Central People’s Government and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.”

[25] Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China [Zhonghua renmin gongheguo xianggang tebie xingzheng qu jiben fa], passed 4 April 90, effective 1 July 97, art. 22 (http://www.cecc.gov/resources/legal-provisions/basic-law-of-the-hong-kong-special-administrative-region-of-the-peoples).

[26] International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, adopted by UN General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 66, entry into force 23 March 76, art. 25 (http://www.ohchr.org/en/professionalinterest/pages/ccpr.aspx).

[27] Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China [Zhonghua renmin gongheguo xianggang tebie xingzheng qu jiben fa], passed 4 April 90, effective 1 July 97, art. 39 (http://www.cecc.gov/resources/legal-provisions/basic-law-of-the-hong-kong-special-administrative-region-of-the-peoples). Article 39 of the Basic Law holds that “[t]he provisions of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights . . . as applied to Hong Kong shall remain in force . . ..”

[28] UN Human Rights Committee, Concluding Observations on the Third Periodic Report of Hong Kong, China, adopted by the Committee at its 107th session (11–28 March 2013), CCPR/C/CHN-HKG/CO/3, para. 6 (http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/treatybodyexternal/Download.aspx?symbolno=CCPR%2fC%2fCHN-HKG%2fCO%2f3&Lang=en). See also UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, General Comment No. 25: The Right To Participate in Public Affairs, Voting Rights and the Right of Equal Access to Public Service, CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.7, 12 July 96, para. 21, (http://www.refworld.org/docid/453883fc22.html).

[29] Michael Forsythe, “U.N. Urges China To Allow Free Elections in Hong Kong,” New York Times, 23 October 14 (https://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/24/world/asia/un-urges-china-to-allow-free-elections-in-hong-kong.html).

[30] Stephanie Nebehay, “U.N. Rights Watchdog Calls for Open Elections in Hong Kong,” Reuters, 23 October 14 (http://in.reuters.com/article/hongkong-china-un-idINKCN0IC1IQ20141023); Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress on Issues Relating to the Selection of the Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region by Universal Suffrage and on the Method for Forming the Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region in the Year 2016 [Quanguo renmin daibiao dahui changwu weiyuanhui guanyu xianggang tebie xingzheng qu xingzheng zhangguan puxuan wenti he 2016 nian lifa hui changsheng banfa de jueding], issued 31 August 14, reprinted in Xinhua (http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/2014-08/31/c_1112298240.htm).

[31] Kris Cheng, “Explainer: Why Hong Kong’s Leadership Race Is Neither Free, Fair, Nor Representative,” Hong Kong Free Press, 27 February 17 (https://www.hongkongfp.com/2017/02/27/explainer-hong-kongs-leadership-race-neither-free-fair-representative/).

[32] Hong Kong Information Services Department, "Chief Executive Election Result" [Xingzheng zhangguan xuanju jieguo], 26 March 17 (http://www.info.gov.hk/gia/general/201703/26/P2017032600507.htm).

[33] Ellie Ng, “All Polls But One Show John Tsang Is Hong Kong’s Most Popular Leadership Candidate,” Hong Kong Free Press, 14 March 17 (https://www.hongkongfp.com/2017/03/14/all-poll-but-polls-show-john-tsang-is-the-most-popular-hong-kong-leadership-candidate/); Liang Yifeng, “After Joint Debate, Half Support John Tsang, Leads Carrie Lam by Large Margin of 19 Points” [Tongtai bianlun hou yiban ren cheng zeng junhua dafu paoli lin zheng 19 ge baifendian], HK01, 13 March 17 (https://www.hk01.com/%E7%89%B9%E9%A6%96%E9%81%B8%E8%88%892017/77428/-%E7%8D%A8%E5%AE%B6%E6%B0%91%E8%AA%BF-%E5%90%8C%E5%8F%B0%E8%BE%AF%E8%AB%96%E5%BE%8C%E4%B8%80%E5%8D%8A%E4%BA%BA%E6%92%90%E6%9B%BE%E4%BF%8A%E8%8F%AF-%E5%A4%A7%E5%B9%85%E6%8B%8B%E9%9B%A2%E6%9E%97%E9%84%AD19%E5%80%8B%E7%99%BE%E5%88%86%E9%BB%9E); “Now News CE Poll: Nearly Forty-Five Percent Most Oppose Carrie Lam Cheng Yuet-ngor” [Bentai teshou mindiao: jin si cheng ban ren zui bu zhichi lin zheng yue’e], Now News, 13 March 17 (http://news.now.com/home/local/player?newsId=213939); Liang Yifeng and Lin Bingkun, “John Tsang Sets New Record High Support of 56%, Leading Carrie Lam Further by 26 Percent” [Zeng junhua zhichi du 56% chuang xin gao jinyibu paoli lin zheng 26 ge baifendian], HK01, 22 March 17 (https://www.hk01.com/%E7%89%B9%E9%A6%96%E9%81%B8%E8%88%892017/79477/-%E7%8D%A8%E5%AE%B6%E6%B0%91%E8%AA%BF-%E6%9B%BE%E4%BF%8A%E8%8F%AF%E6%94%AF%E6%8C%81%E5%BA%A656-%E5%89%B5%E6%96%B0%E9%AB%98-%E9%80%B2%E4%B8%80%E6%AD%A5%E6%8B%8B%E9%9B%A2%E6%9E%97%E9%84%AD26%E5%80%8B%E7%99%BE%E5%88%86%E9%BB%9E).