Chinese White Paper on Democratic Governance (Chinese and English Text)


The following translation was retrieved from the Xinhua Online Web site on October 19, 2005.

White paper: Building of Political Democracy in China (Full text) 2005-10-19 10:55:15

    BEIJING, Oct. 19 (Xinhuanet) -- The Information Office of China's State Council on Wednesday issued a white paper titled Building of Political Democracy in China. The following is the full text of the document:     

    Building of Political Democracy in China

    Information Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China
    October 2005, Beijing



    I. A Choice Suited to China's Conditions

    II. The CPC Led the People to Become Masters of the State

    III. The People's Congress System

    IV. The System of Multi-Party Cooperation and Political Consultation Under the Leadership of the CPC

    V. The System of Ethnic Regional Autonomy

    VI. Grassroots Democracy in Urban and Rural Areas

    VII. Respecting and Safeguarding Human Rights

    VIII. The Democratic Rule by the Communist Party of China

    IX. Government Democracy

    X. Judicial Democracy



    Democracy is an outcome of the development of political civilization of mankind. It is also the common desire of people all over the world. Democracy of a country is generated internally,not imposed by external forces.

    In the course of their modern history, the Chinese people have waged unrelenting struggles and made arduous explorations in orderto win their democratic rights. But only under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC) did they really win the right to be masters of the state. The Chinese people dearly cherish and resolutely protect their hard-earned democratic achievements.

    Because situations differ from one country to another, the paths the people of different countries take to win and develop democracy are different. Based on the specific conditions of China,the CPC and the Chinese people first engaged in a New Democratic Revolution, and after New China was founded in 1949, and proceeding from the actual situation of the primary stage of socialism, began to practice socialist democracy with its own characteristics. The experience over the past few decades has proved that embarking on this road of development of political democracy chosen by the Chinese people themselves not only realized the Chinese people's demand to be masters of their own country, but is also gradually realizing their common ideal to build their country into a strong and modern socialist country.

    Socialist democracy with Chinese characteristics is being constantly improved and developed. Since China adopted the reform and opening-up policies at the end of the 1970s, while making efforts to steadily deepen the reform of its economic system, the country has unswervingly pushed forward reforms of its political system. China's democratic system has been continuously improved, and the forms of democracy are becoming more varied. The people are exercising fully their right to be masters of the state. The building of political democracy with Chinese characteristics is progressing with the times, exhibiting great vigor and vitality.

I. A Choice Suited to China's Conditions     

    The experience of political civilization of mankind over a history of several millenniums is ample proof of the truth that the political system a country adopts and the road to democracy ittakes must be in conformity with the conditions of that country. The socialist political democracy of China is rooted in the vast land of fertile soil on which the Chinese nation has depended for its subsistence and development over thousands of years. It grew out of the experience of the CPC and the Chinese people in their great practice of striving for national independence, liberation of the people and prosperity of the country. It is the apt choice suited to China's conditions and meeting the requirement of socialprogress.

    China has a history of 5,000 years of civilization. Boasting a splendid civilization in the same league as those of ancient Egypt,India and Babylon, China has contributed greatly to the development and progress of mankind. The Chinese people are industrious, courageous and full of wisdom. It is generally acknowledged in the world that the Chinese nation has a long, uninterrupted history and a rich cultural heritage.

    China had a long history of feudal society, and when, from 1840on, the Western imperialist powers launched, time and again, aggressive wars against China, the corrupt and weak feudal ruling class buckled, and China was reduced to a semi-colonial, semi-feudal society. For nearly 110 years after that, China becamea target of plunder for almost all the imperialist countries, big and small. The Chinese nation was plunged into the most dangerous situation: suffering from invasion by imperialism from the outsideand oppression by feudalism on the inside. The Chinese people had no democratic rights whatsoever. To change the fate of the countryand the nation, generation after generation of Chinese people roseup and waged heroic struggles, one stepping into the breach the moment another fell.

    In this movement to save China from destruction, some of the elite turned their eyes to the West for a road that would save thecountry and the people. They started a bourgeois democratic revolution in China. The Revolution of 1911, led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen, forerunner of the democratic revolution in China, broughtto an end the autocratic monarchical system that had been in placefor more than 2,000 years. But the bourgeois republic, including the parliamentarism and multi-party system that were subsequently established after the Revolution of 1911 in imitation of the mode of Western democracy, did not fulfill the fervent desire of the Chinese people for independence and democracy. The new republic soon collapsed under the onslaught of domestic and foreign reactionary forces. A contemporary said in anger and grief, "Many lives were lost and a lot of blood was shed, but what we achieved was a counterfeit republic." The Chinese people had still not shaken off oppression, slavery and exploitation. What was the way out for China? The Chinese people were pondering, exploring and struggling in the dark.

    Through painstaking exploration and hard struggle, the Chinese people finally came to realize that mechanically copying the Western bourgeois political system and applying it to China would lead them nowhere. To accomplish the historic task of saving Chinaand triumphing over imperialism and feudalism, the Chinese people needed new thought and new theories to open up a new road for the Chinese revolution and establish a totally new political system. The important historic task of leading the Chinese people to find this new road and establish a new system landed on the shoulders of the Chinese communists. In 1921, some progressive intellectualswho had studied the ideology of democracy and science combined Marxism and Leninism with the Chinese workers' movement, and founded the CPC. After that, under the leadership of the CPC, the Chinese revolution entered the period of New Democracy, characterized by thorough opposition to imperialism, feudalism andbureaucratic capitalism. After fighting bravely for 28 difficult years, China finally achieved national independence and the people's liberation.

    As the vanguard of the Chinese working class, the Chinese people and the Chinese nation, the CPC has taken as its own task the realization and development of a people's democracy right fromthe date of its founding. The goal of the CPC's leadership of the people in revolutionary struggles is to realize democracy for the overwhelming majority of people, and not just for a minority of the people. The CPC creatively combines the general truth of Marxism-Leninism with the actual situation of the Chinese revolution, setting out such democratic concepts as "democracy forthe workers and peasants," "people's democracy," and "new democracy," to enrich and develop Marxist theories on political democracy. In its history, the CPC has adopted many different organizational forms, such as the congress of workers on strike, peasants' association, the Soviet of representatives of workers, peasants and soldiers, the congress of councilors, and the congress of people from all walks of life. These forms of political democracy were suited to the actual conditions in China at various periods of time and were able to guarantee that the people were the masters of the state. These forms of political democracy were a striking contrast to the ruling system of the Kuomintang, and they reflected the people's wishes and enjoyed popular support.

    The first plenary session of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) was convened in September 1949, onthe eve of the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC). It was an important meeting at which the CPC discussed major matters concerning the founding of the new republic in line with the principle of democracy with all democratic parties, people's organizations and democratic personages without party affiliation.It decided on the state system and organizational form of state power of New China. The meeting adopted the "Common Program of theChinese People's Political Consultative Conference," which served as a provisional constitution of the new republic. The Common Program clearly stipulated, "The People's Republic of China is a state of new democracy, or of the people's democracy. It will practice people's democratic dictatorship under the leadership of the working class, on the basis of the alliance of workers and peasants, uniting all democratic classes and people of all ethnic groups in China"; "The state power of the People's Republic of China belongs to the people. The organs through which the people exercise state power are the people's congresses and people's governments at all levels." The founding of the PRC on October 1, 1949 marked the great victory of the New Democratic Revolution wonby the Chinese people under the leadership of the CPC and the fundamental change that had taken in the political status of the Chinese people. From then on, the Chinese people became the real masters of their country, society and their own fate. The establishment of New China marked a great leap from the 2,000-year-old autocratic feudal political system and the unsuccessful trials in contemporary China imitating the mode of Western democratic political systems to the new people's democratic political system.

    Not long after the founding of New China, the first general election in Chinese history -- with the biggest-ever turnout of the people -- was held all over the country in 1953. The people exercised the power of being masters of the state by electing their own deputies, and people's congresses were held first at lower levels and then at higher levels. In September 1954, the first session of the First National People's Congress was held, marking the formal establishment of the system of people's congress all over China. The Constitution of the People's Republicof China, which had been discussed widely among the people prior to the session, was adopted at the congress. It established the state system of the people's democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on the alliance of workers and peasants, and the political system, i.e., the people's congress system, as the basic political systems of the PRC. It also clearly stipulatedthat "All power in the People's Republic of China belongs to the people. The National People's Congress and the local people's congresses at various levels are the organs through which the people exercise state power. Democratic centralism shall be practiced in the National People's Congress and the local people'scongresses at various levels as well as in all other state organs."

    The establishment of the system of people's congress and the promulgation of the Constitution of the People's Republic of Chinameant that the Chinese people's exercise of the right to be masters of the state now had a reliable institutional guarantee and constitutional basis. By 1956, most areas in China had completed the socialist transformation of the private ownership ofthe means of production, thereby completing the transition from the historical period of New Democracy to that of socialism. Thus,the basic system of socialism was established, and the widest and deepest social transformation in Chinese history has accomplished.But, New China made some detours in its quest of the way to build political democracy. The grave mistakes of the "cultural revolution" (1966-1976), in particular, caused a serious setback for China in building its political democracy, and the nation learned a bitter lesson.

    After China adopted the reform and opening-up policies in the late 1970s, the CPC summed up both its positive and negative historical experiences, and led the people into a new period in building China's socialist political democracy. Without democracy there could be no socialism, much less socialist modernization; the socialist legal system had to be strengthened so that democracy could be institutionalized; it was necessary to govern the country by law and build a socialist country under the rule oflaw; socialist political democracy had to be developed and socialist political civilization had to be built; the CPC's leadership, the people being the masters of the state and governing the country by law had to be integrated; and the people had to be put first, and the country must be governed for the people so as to build a harmonious socialist country. All these have become the common understanding of the CPC and the people of all ethnic groups of China as they improve and develop socialist political democracy, and will serve as their guiding principles asthey move forward.

    Over the past 20 years and more, great progress has been made in China's practice of building a socialist democratic political system. The system of the people's congress, the system of multi-party cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the CPC, and the system of regional autonomy for ethnic minorities -- all important components of China's democratic system -- have been continuously improved and developed. The democratic rights of people at the grassroots levelin urban and rural areas have been constantly increased, and the citizens' basic rights are respected and guaranteed. The CPC's capability to rule the country in a democratic manner has been enhanced further, while the government's capability to administer the country in a democratic manner has been strengthened noticeably. Continual progress has been made in building a democratic system within the legal framework. Marked achievements have been recorded in the reform of the state leadership system, legislative system, administrative management system, decision-making system, judicial system, personnel system, and supervision and checking system. Guided by the objective of rulingthe country by law and building a socialist country under the ruleof law, more efforts are being made to build socialist democracy so that it is institutionalized, standardized and in line with prescribed procedures. A socialist law regime with Chinese characteristics and with the Constitution at its core has been preliminarily formed. Major aspects of China's politics, economics,culture and social life are now within the purview of the rule of law.

    In building socialist political democracy, China has always adhered to the basic principle that the Marxist theory of democracy be combined with the reality of China, borrowed from theuseful achievements of the political civilization of mankind, including Western democracy, and assimilated the democratic elements of China's traditional culture and institutional civilization. Therefore, China's socialist political democracy shows distinctive Chinese characteristics.

    -- China's democracy is a people's democracy under the leadership of the CPC. Without the Communist Party there would be no New China. Nor would there be people's democracy. This is a fact that has been borne out by history. The Chinese people won the right to be masters of the state only after many years of arduous struggle under the leadership of the CPC. The democratic political system in China was established by the Chinese people led by the CPC. The development and improvement of this system arealso carried out under the CPC's leadership. The leadership of CPCis a fundamental guarantee for the Chinese people to be masters inmanaging the affairs of their own country.

    -- China's democracy is a democracy in which the overwhelming majority of the people act as masters of state affairs. That the people are the masters is the quintessence of China's socialist democracy. In China, the publicly owned sector of the economy is the economic foundation of China's socialist system. In the primary stage of socialism, the state persists in the basic economic system with public ownership playing a dominant role and diverse forms of ownership developing side by side and the distribution system in which to each according to his work is predominant while other forms of distribution exist side by side. This ensures, from the perspective of economic foundation, that China's democracy will not be manipulated by capital; it is not a democracy for a small number of people, but one for the overwhelming majority of the people. In China, people enjoying thedemocratic rights include everyone who has not been deprived of political rights by law.

    -- China's democracy is a democracy guaranteed by the people's democratic dictatorship. Under the people's democratic dictatorship, on the one hand, democracy of the widest scope is practiced among the people, human rights are respected and ensured,and state power is in the hands of the people and serves the interests of the people. On the other, criminal activities, such as sabotage of the socialist system, endangering state security and public security, infringement on citizens' rights of the person or their democratic rights, embezzlement, bribery and dereliction of duty, are penalized according to law so as to safeguard the fundamental interests of the broad masses.

    -- China's democracy is a democracy with democratic centralism as the basic organizational principle and mode of operation. Democratic centralism is the fundamental principle of organizationand leadership of state power in China. When democratic centralismis practiced, it requires that we give full play to democracy and discuss matters of concern collectively, so that people's wishes and demands are fully expressed and reflected. Then, all the correct opinions are pooled, and decisions are made collectively so that the people's wishes and demands are realized and met. The practice of democratic centralism also requires that "the majoritybe respected while the minority is protected." We are against the anarchic call for "democracy for all," and against anybody placinghis own will above that of the collective.

 II. The CPC Led the People to Become Masters of the State     

    The CPC's leading status was established gradually in the protracted struggle and practice of the Chinese people in pursuingnational independence, prosperity and a happy life. It was a choice made by history and by the people. The Chinese revolution, construction and reform have demonstrated to the world that it wasthe CPC that led the Chinese people to find the correct road to win national independence and liberation. It was the CPC that led the Chinese people to find the correct road to build China into a prosperous, democratic and civilized modern country. It is precisely because of this historical reason that the CPC's leadingstatus is clearly described in the Constitution of the People's Republic of China.

    Today, the CPC's leadership and rule in China is an objective requirement of the country's development and progress.

    -- The CPC's leadership and rule is needed for promoting socialist modernization and realizing great national rejuvenation.It has been the aspiration and dream for the Chinese people to ridtheir country of its poor and backward outlook, and realize modernization and national rejuvenation over the past 100 years. Under the leadership of the CPC, after making a range of explorations and efforts over the past 56 years since the foundingof New China, China has cast off its former state of abject poverty. Productivity has grown rapidly, overall national strengthhas increased greatly and people's life has improved markedly. China's international status has been elevated, and its international influence is increasing day by day. Especially in the 26 years since the initiation of the reform and opening-up policies, China has created an economic miracle -- its GDP has been increasing at an average annual rate of 9.4 percent, and the general living standard of the 1.3 billion Chinese people has, in general, reached the moderately well-off level. It is the unswerving choice of the Chinese people to march toward the goal of prosperous, democratic, civilized socialist modernization underthe leadership of the CPC.

    -- The CPC's leadership and rule is needed for safeguarding China's unification and keeping Chinese society harmonious and stable. History has proved time and again that, without the unification of the country and social stability, there will be no prosperity for the country, and the people will not be able to live and work in peace and contentment. Foreign invasions, warlordrampages and political turmoil brought disaster after disaster to contemporary China. That period of history left an indelible impression on the memory of the Chinese people. The unification and stability of China is a blessing for the Chinese people. It isalso in keeping with the interests of the people of all other countries in the world. To safeguard the country's unification andsocial stability has always been a matter of paramount importance at which the people of all ethnic groups in China are most concerned. The CPC is the faithful representative of the fundamental interests of the Chinese people of all ethnic groups. Guided by scientific theories, with the support of nearly 3,500,000 Party organizations and 69,600,000 Party members and based on its rich experience in exercising state power and its capability in controlling the overall situation, the CPC has been planning as a whole social and economic development and making efforts to build a harmonious socialist society to safeguard the country's unification as well as social harmony and stability.

    -- The CPC's leadership and rule is needed for making the statepower stable. China is a vast country with a large population. There are great disparities in terms of development between urban and rural areas, and between different regions. It is of unusual significance for China to have a stable state power. Only then canChina concentrate on construction and development, and only then can the country's development strategy and goal of modernization be pursued for a long time and through to the end. Only then can all kinds of unnecessary and unwanted internal political strife beminimized, all positive factors be exploited to the full, and all resources, strength and wisdom be pooled to tackle major problems that have a bearing on the nation's economy and the people's livelihood, and to ensure sustainable social and economic development.

    -- The CPC's leadership and rule is needed for uniting hundredsof millions of people to work in concerted efforts in building a beautiful future. In Old China, the society was disunited, like a heap of loose sand. That was a painful experience for the Chinese people. In a big country like China, with such a large population and where things are complicated, if there had not been a strong political core and if there had not been a lofty goal that can unite the people of all ethnic groups in their common struggle, the country would have disintegrated easily, and it would have been impossible for China to develop and make progress. Experiencehas shown that, in China, it is the CPC that unites the Chinese people, gives full play to their enthusiasm, initiative and creativity, and has them engage, heart and soul, in the common struggle for their common interests, common cause, common ideal and a better future for China.

    -- The CPC's leadership and rule is, in essence, to lead, support and ensure that the people are the masters of the state. All power in the PRC belongs to the people. This is a fundamental principle for building political democracy in China. It is also anessential requirement of the CPC's leadership and exercise of state power. In China, the CPC leads and supports the people to bethe masters of the state and ensures its realization. This provides an institutional and legal guarantee that the fundamentalprinciple, that is, all power in the PRC belongs to the people, isfully and thoroughly implemented and embodied in every aspect of national and social activities. The CPC has led the people to formulate the Constitution and laws. It takes the lead in observing and safeguarding the Constitution and laws, and combats resolutely all activities that violate the Constitution and laws.

    The following specific forms explain how the CPC leads and supports the people to be the masters of the state, and ensures its realization: First, it provides leadership to the people in wielding state power through the people's congress system. In thisway, it ensures that the laws, guiding principles and policies formulated by the state reflect the common will of the people and protect their fundamental interests, and guarantees that the people become the masters of the state. Second, it leads the people to manage state affairs, economic and cultural undertakingsand social affairs by abiding by the Constitution and the provisions of the laws and through various channels and in different forms, so as to ensure that the development of all undertakings of the state is in line with the people's wishes, interests and demands. Third, it leads the people to practice grassroots democracy and manage their own affairs in accordance with the law, so as to enable them to exercise self-management, self-education and self-service through democratic elections, democratic decision-making, democratic management and democratic supervision. Fourth, it leads the people to strictly observe the principle that all citizens are equal before the law, so as to enable the citizens to enjoy widespread freedom and rights as prescribed in the law as well as in practice, respect and protect human rights, and safeguard fairness and justice. These institutional and legal guarantees ensure that the people are the masters of the country, and they can use their own public rights and all rights of citizenship to safeguard and realize their own interests.

III. The People's Congress System    

    The people's congress system is the fundamental political system by which the Chinese people act as masters of the state. The Chinese people exercise state power through the National People's Congress (NPC) and the local people's congresses at various levels.

    China has adopted a unicameral parliamentary system based on its national conditions, rather than the bicameral system instituted in Western countries. The Chinese Constitution stipulates: the NPC of the PRC is the highest organ of state power. In China, all administrative, judicial and procuratorial organs of the state are created by the people's congresses to which they are responsible and by which they are supervised. All major issues of the state are decided by the people's congresses. The administrative organs are responsible for implementing the laws, resolutions and decisions adopted by the people's congresses. The courts and procuratorates exercise their respective powers of jurisdiction and prosecution independently, in line with the stipulations of the law, free from interference by any administrative authority, social organization or individual.

    The NPC and the local people's congresses at various levels areestablished through democratic elections. They are responsible to the people and subject to their supervision. The Chinese Constitution states that all citizens who have reached the age of 18 have the right to vote and stand for election, regardless of ethnic status, race, sex, occupation, family background, religiousbelief, education, property status or length of residence, except for persons deprived of political rights in accordance with the law. The deputies to the local people's congresses at county and township levels are elected directly by the electors. Over the years, the population that has enjoyed the right to vote and standfor election has accounted for more than 99 percent of the number of citizens at or above the age of 18, and the ratio of participation in elections has been around 90 percent. Due to China's realities, the deputies to the people's congresses above the county level are elected indirectly, that is, by the people's congress at the immediately lower level. A competitive election system is adopted in both direct and indirect elections in accordance with the law. The electors and the electoral units havethe power to recall or replace deputies they have elected according to the procedures prescribed by law. At present, there are 2.8 million deputies to the people's congresses at all levels nationwide, and they are from various ethnic groups, trades, social strata and political parties and are therefore highly representative. The deputies from workers and farmers account for a considerable proportion of deputies to people's congresses at different levels. For instance, worker and farmer deputies accountfor 18.4 percent of the total number of deputies to the Tenth NPC (March 2003-March 2008). To ensure that state power is truly in the hands of the entire people, the deputies must convey and represent the interests and will of the people when exercising their functions and powers. They have the right to propose bills, examine and discuss bills and reports, and vote on bills in accordance with the law, and may not be held legally liable for their speeches or votes at the meetings of the people's congresses.

    The Chinese Constitution and law stipulate that the term of office of each NPC and each of local people's congresses at various levels is five years, and the NPC meets in session once a year, and local people's congresses at various levels meet at least once a year. The Election Law of People's Congresses also prescribes that the number of deputies to each NPC shall not exceed 3,000. Since the number of deputies to the NPC is fairly large and makes it inconvenient to hold frequent meetings, the NPCStanding Committee is established in accordance with the stipulation of the Constitution to exercise the functions and powers of the highest organ of state power when the NPC is not in session. The NPC Standing Committee normally meets once every two months. It is composed of one chairperson, a number of vice-chairpersons, one secretary-general and a number of members. The Standing Committee of the Tenth NPC has 175 members, includingone chairperson and 15 vice-chairpersons. Standing committees havealso been established by local people's congresses at and above the county level. The members of the Standing Committee of the NPCand standing committees of the local people's congresses at and above the county level are elected from among the deputies to the people's congresses in competitive elections, and for the same term as the NPC and local people's congresses at the correspondinglevels.

    The people's congresses and their standing committees pursue a democratic style of work, draw on the wisdom of all deputies, and represent and convey the will and basic interests of the people. The principle of absolute majority is observed when the people's congresses and their standing committees vote on bills, that is, abill can only be adopted by the agreement of more than half of thetotal number of members. Amendments to the Constitution are adopted by a vote of more than two-thirds of all the deputies to the NPC.

    When the people's congresses and their standing committees holdmeetings, persons in charge of departments concerned may attend asnon-voting delegates, and the departments and individuals concerned may audit. Those attending as non-voting delegates have the right to speak, but not the right to vote. Those auditing are not entitled to speak. If they have any comment on the bills discussed by the standing committee, they may submit their opinions to the working organ of the standing committee in writing. In recent years, the standing committees in some localities have opened their doors to citizens who wish to be observers at their meetings. The auditors are chosen in sequence of applications of citizens.

    The people's congresses have four main functions and powers: legislation, supervision, appointment and removal of officials, and making decisions on major issues. These functions are a major reflection of the way the Chinese people exercise their power as masters of the state through the system of people's congress.

    -- Power of legislation. The Chinese Constitution states that the NPC and its Standing Committee exercise the legislative power of the state, mainly to amend the Constitution, and enact and amend the basic laws concerning criminal offences, civil affairs, state organs and other matters. The people's congress at provincial level and its standing committee may, in the light of the specific conditions and practical needs of that particular administrative area, enact local regulations under the precondition that the regulations they enact must not contravene the Constitution, the law or the administrative regulations of thestate. The people's congress of a big city and its standing committee may, in the light of the specific conditions and practical needs of the city, enact local regulations under the precondition that the regulations they enact must not contravene either the Constitution, the law or the administrative regulationsof the state, or the regulations of the province or autonomous region the city belongs to, and submit the newly enacted local regulations to the standing committee of the people's congress of the province or autonomous region for approval be-fore they are put into effect. The people's congress and its standing committee of a province or city that has special economic zones may, in linewith authorization by the NPC, enact local regulations that take effect within the special economic zones. The people's congresses of the ethnic autonomous areas have the power to enact regulationson the exercise of autonomy and other separate regulations in the light of the political, economic and cultural characteristics of the ethnic group(s), and make appropriate adaptations of the laws and administrative regulations.

    In the three decades from 1949, when the PRC was founded, to 1978, the NPC formulated 134 laws, 16 of which are still in force today. When the reform and opening-up policies were initiated in the late 1970s, China's socialist democratic legal construction entered a new era. In 1982, the NPC revised the Constitution, and adopted four amendments to it in the ensuing years. So far, the NPC and its Standing Committee have enacted more than 200 laws that are still in effect and over 200 decisions on legal issues. The local people's congresses and their standing committees have enacted more than 7,500 local regulations that are still in effect,and the people's congresses of ethnic autonomous areas have enacted more than 600 regulations on the exercise of autonomy and other regulations.

    In recent years, democracy has been promoted continuously in China's legislation. Experts are invited to give their opinions atsymposia organized on the draft of almost every bill. In some cases, the legislative organ even entrusts specialized research institutions to draft the bills. For bills aiming at adjusting important social relations, the standing committees of local people's congresses often hold hearings to let parties with different interests voice their opinions. The Legislation Law of China has included provisions on legislative hearings. Since 1982,the NPC and its Standing Committee have published the drafts of a dozen important bills that are closely related to the immediate interests of the people, including the amendments to the Constitution, the draft for revision of the Marriage Law, the draft of the Contract Law, and the draft of the Property Law, to solicit public opinion during the process of formulation. The direct participation of the people in the formulation of laws has not only improved the quality of legislation and ensured that the laws fully represent the will and demands of the people, but has also enhanced the whole society's sense of law, so that the laws can be enforced in a smooth way after adoption.

    -- Power of supervision. To supervise the enforcement of the Constitution and the law is a major content of the supervisory power exercised by the NPC and its Standing Committee. The basic way such supervision is carried out is by examination of the enforcement of laws and by checking the reporting of regulations for the record. Regarding the examination of law enforcement, the Standing Committee of the Ninth NPC conducted 22 examinations of the enforcement of 21 laws, and the Standing Committee of the Tenth NPC examined the enforcement of 10 laws in the period 2003-2004. The standing committees of the local people's congresses have also examined the enforcement of laws and relevantregulations within their respective administrative areas. Through the examination of law enforcement, the standing committees of thepeople's congresses have obtained detailed information about the true situation and existing problems in the enforcement of laws and regulations, and urged the governments, the courts and the procuratorates at the same level to improve their law-enforcement work, and thus ensured that the organs in charge of law enforcement act in accordance with the law and exercise judicial power justly. Regarding checking on the reporting of regulations for the record, more than 7,500 local regulations, 600 regulationson the exercise of autonomy and separate regulations, and nearly 300 regulations applied to the special economic zones have so far been filed to the NPC Standing Committee for the record. The Standing Committee of the Tenth NPC has set up a special examiningorgan to further standardize this work. The standing committees ofthe people's congresses at the provincial level and of big cities have also examined, in accordance with the law, the reporting of rules and regulations for the record by the local governments. Through these efforts, rules and regulations that contravene the Constitution and the law are annulled, and organs that have formulated regulations that include inappropriate articles and clauses are urged to correct them. This is of great significance for keeping the legal system of the state in unison. In recent years, the NPC Standing Committee has started to examine the reporting for the record of judicial interpretations by the Supreme People's Court and the Supreme People's Procuratorate.

    To supervise the work of the governments, the courts and the procuratorates are another important part of the supervisory powerof the people's congresses and their standing committees at the corresponding level. To hear and review the work reports of the State Council, the Supreme People's Court and the Supreme People'sProcuratorate are a basic means by which the NPC and its Standing Committee exercise their power of supervision. When the people's congresses are in session, the people's governments, people's courts and people's procuratorates at the same level shall report their work to the session, and the people's governments shall submit their draft budgets and draft plans for national economic and social development, and the draft budgets shall be reviewed for approval by the session. When the standing committees of the people's congresses are in session, they hear work reports and reports on issues that are significant to the reform, development and stability, as well as urgent topics or difficulties that are related to the immediate interests of the people. The Standing Committee of the Ninth NPC heard and reviewed 40 special reports during its five-year tenure, and the Standing Committee of the Tenth NPC has heard and reviewed 22 special reports in the first two years of its tenure.

    -- Power of personnel appointment and removal. The people's congresses and their standing committees have the power to elect, decide on, appoint or remove, replace or recall members of relevant organs of state power. The NPC elects the president and the vice-president of the PRC, and the chairperson of the Central Military Commission of the state; decides on the choice of the premier of the State Council upon nomination by the president; decides on the choice of the vice-premiers, state councilors, ministers in charge of various ministries or commissions, the auditor-general and the secretary-general of the State Council upon nomination by the premier; upon nomination by the chairman ofthe Central Military Commission of the state, decides on the choice of all other members of the Central Military Commission; and elects the president of the Supreme People's Court and the procurator-general of the Supreme People's Procuratorate. The local people's congresses at all levels exercise their power to elect, decide on, appoint or remove, replace or recall members of local organs of state power in accordance with the law.

    -- Power to making decisions regarding major issues. The NPC isentitled by the Constitution to approve the establishment of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the central government, decide on the establishment of special administrative regions and the systems to be instituted there, anddecide on questions of war and peace, and other major issues. Issues that are significant to the national economy and social development, such as the Three Gorges Project, can only be implemented after a resolution has been made by the NPC. In recentyears, the people's congresses and their standing committees have exercised their power to make decisions on urban construction planning, environmental protection and other major issues in theirown areas.

    Practice has proved that the system of people's congress is a fundamental political system that is in accord with the national conditions of China, embodies the nature of the socialist state ofChina and ensures the people to be the masters of the country. It has taken root among the masses and, therefore, is full of vigor; it represents the common will and fundamental interests of the people, and motivates the whole people to plunge in state construction as the masters of the state, guarantees that state organs operate in a coordinated and efficient way, and safeguards national unification and ethnic unity. Through the system of people's congress, the Chinese people of all ethnic groups hold the future and destiny of the state and the nation firmly in theirown hands.

  IV. The System of Multi-Party Cooperation and Political Consultation Under the Leadership of the CPC     

    What kind of political party system to adopt is determined by the nature of the country, the national conditions, as well as thedemands of national interests and social development. The political party system China has adopted is multi-party cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of theCPC, which is different from both the two-party or multi-party competition system of Western countries and the one-party system practiced in some other countries. This system was established andhas been developed during the long-term practice of the CPC and democratic parties in the course of the Chinese revolution, construction and reform. It is a result of the united struggle of the CPC and the democratic parties through thick and thin and is abasic political system in contemporary China.

    There are nine political parties in China at present. Besides the CPC, there are the Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang (founded in 1948), the China Democratic League (foundedin 1941), the China National Democratic Construction Association (founded in 1945), the China Association for Promoting Democracy (founded in 1945), the Chinese Peasants and Workers Democratic Party (founded in 1930), the China Zhi Gong Dang (founded in 1925),the Jiusan Society (founded in 1945) and the Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League (founded in 1947). Since most of these political parties were founded during the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression (1937-1945) and the War of Liberation (1946-1949) in the pursuit of national liberation and democracy ofthe people, they were given the joint name of "democratic parties." In present-day China, these democratic parties are political alliances of the socialist working people, builders of socialism and patriots who support socialism, among whom they havemaintained ties respectively. Another important force in China's political life is the personages without party affiliation, or people who have not joined any political party but have certain public influence coupled with positive contributions. The majorityare intellectuals.

    The salient characteristics of China's political party system are: multi-party cooperation under the leadership of the CPC, withthe CPC holding power and the democratic parties participating fully in state affairs. These democratic parties are close friendsof the CPC. They unite and cooperate with the latter in their participation in state affairs, instead of being opposition parties or out-of-power parties. They participate in the exercise of state power, the consultation in fundamental state policies andthe choice of state leaders, the administration of state affairs, and the formulation and implementation of state policies, laws andregulations.

    In China, the CPC and the democratic parties share the same goal of struggle. The Chinese Constitution states that "under the leadership of the Communist Party of China multi-party cooperationand the political consultative system will continue to exist and develop for a long time to come." The cooperation between the CPC and the democratic parties is based on the basic principle of "long-term coexistence, mutual supervision, treating each other with sincerity and sharing each other's weal and woe." The national conditions and the nature of the state determine that theleadership of the CPC is the first and foremost prerequisite and fundamental guarantee for the multi-party cooperation. At the sametime, such a leadership is not one of simple monopoly, but one of political leadership, that is, leadership in terms of political principle, political orientation, and major policies and programs.Both the CPC and the democratic parties take the Constitution as the basic norms of their conduct, and shoulder the responsibility to uphold the dignity of the Constitution and ensure its implementation.

    The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) is an organization of the patriotic united front of the Chinese people. It is an important organ of multi-party cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the CPC, and an important instrument of democracy in the country's political life.The CPPCC National Committee is composed of members of the CPC andthe democratic parties, personages without party affiliation, representatives of people's organizations, ethnic minorities and all walks of life, representatives of compatriots of the Hong KongSpecial Administrative Region, the Macao Special Administrative Region and Taiwan, as well as of returned overseas Chinese and other specially invited people, who are divided into several circles. The CPPCC National Committee has one chairperson, a number of vice-chairpersons and one secretary-general, serves for a term of five years, and holds a plenary session once a year. Theprovinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the central government establish CPPCC committees of the provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. The autonomous prefectures,cities divided into districts, counties, autonomous counties, cities not divided into districts and districts under the jurisdiction of cities, where there are suitable conditions for setting up local committees, may establish CPPCC committees in thecorresponding areas. The tenure of these committees is five years,and a plenary session shall be held at least once a year. The CPPCC conducts its work centering on the two themes of unity and democracy, and exercises the functions of political consultation, democratic supervision, and participating in the administration and discussion of state affairs. The CPPCC plays an important rolein the state's political life, social life and overseas friendshipactivities, as well as the country's modernization drive and the struggle to safeguard national reunification and unity. The CPC and the governments at all levels consult the CPPCC on fundamentalpolicies and important issues in political, economic, cultural andsocial affairs before a decision is adopted and during the implementation of such decisions, so as to heed and canvass a widerange of opinions. This is a key link for the CPC and the governments at all levels to ensure that decision-making is scientific and democratic.

    The increasing importance of the system of multi-party cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of theCPC in the state's political and social life can be specified as follows:

    -- Political consultation between the CPC and the democratic parties and personages without party affiliation has been gradually institutionalized and standardized. The CPC Central Committee rou-tinely invites leaders of the democratic parties andrepresentative personages without party affiliation to consultative conferences, small-scale meetings and forums at whichCPC leaders inform the participants of major events, hear their opinions and suggestions, and discuss state affairs with them. In addition to these consultation meetings, the central committees ofthe democratic parties may submit suggestions in writing to the CPC Central Committee. Consultations may cover important documentsof the CPC National Congress and the CPC Central Committee; proposed amendments to the Constitution and important laws; candidates for senior offices of the state; important decisions concerning the reform and opening-up program; the medium- and long-term plans for national economic and social development; major issues that have a bearing on the overall situation of the country; circulation of information about important documents and situations, and soliciting of opinions; as well as other major issues that need to be discussed with the democratic parties. In 2003 and 2004, 36 consultative conferences, forums and briefings were convened by CPC leaders or entrusted by them to be convened by relevant departments, 13 of which were presided over by the General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee.

    -- Members of the democratic parties and personages without party affiliation play an important role in the people's congresses. Members of the democratic parties and personages without party affiliation hold an appropriate proportion in the deputies to the NPC, the Standing Committee and the special committees of the NPC. Through their activities in the people's congresses, they reflect the wishes of the people, participate in decision-making on major state issues and in the formulation of laws, and supervise the work of the government. In 2003, when a new term of office began, 176,000 members of the democratic parties and personages without party affiliation were elected deputies to the people's congresses at various levels nationwide. Among them, seven are vice-chairpersons of the NPC Standing Committee and 50 are members of the NPC Standing Committee; 41 arevice-chairpersons of the standing committees of provincial-level people's congresses and 462 are members of such standing committees; and 352 are vice-chairpersons of the standing committees of municipal-level people's congresses and 2,084 are members of such standing committees.

    -- Members of the democratic parties and personages without party affiliation hold leading positions in government and judicial organs at various levels. At the end of 2004, over 32,000members of the democratic parties and personages without party affiliation held leading positions in government and law-enforcement departments at and above the county level. Among them, 19 held leading posts in the Supreme People's Court, the Supreme People's Procuratorate as well as the various ministries and commissions under the central government; 27 served as deputy governors, vice-chairpersons or deputy mayors in the 31 provinces,autonomous regions and municipalities on the mainland of China; 354 served as deputy mayors in the people's governments of 397 cities (prefectures, leagues or districts); 19 were vice-presidents of courts or deputy chief procurators of procuratorates at the provincial level; and 87 were vice-presidents of courts or deputy chief procurators of procuratorates at the prefecture level. Engaging in mutual supportwith CPC officials, they play a significant role in the organs of state power.

    -- Members of the democratic parties and personages without party affiliation play an important role in the CPPCC. As deputiesto the CPPCC, members of the democratic parties and personages without party affiliation can air their opinions, put forth bills and motions, and participate in the administration and discussion of state affairs. They also hold a fairly big proportion in the members, standing committees members and leaders of the CPPCC at various levels. The latest CPPCC election, held in 2003, saw 337,000 members of the democratic parties and personages without party affiliation elected CPPCC members at various levels nationwide. About 60.1 percent of the members of the Tenth CPPCC National Committee and 65.2 percent of the members of its StandingCommittee were members of the democratic parties and personages without party affiliation; and of 24 vice-chairpersons of the vice-chairpersons of the Tenth CPPCC National Committee, 13 are members of the democratic parties and personages without party affiliation.

    -- Members of the democratic parties and personages without party affiliation exercise democratic supervision over the work ofthe party in power and the state organs through diversified channels and means. Such supervision mainly covers the implementation of the Constitution, and laws and regulations of the state; the formulation and implementation of major principles and policies of the CPC and the government; and the performance and honesty of the CPC organizations and CPC members who hold leading posts. In recent years, government departments and judicial organs have appointed members of democratic parties and personages without party affiliation as special inspectors, invited and organized members of democratic parties and personageswithout party affiliation to examine the work style of the CPC, and to take part in other special checks and supervision over law enforcement, thus further opening up the channels of, and constantly strengthening, democratic supervision.

    -- Members of the democratic parties and personages without party affiliation actively participate in the country's reform andopening-up and modernization drive, and make suggestions to promote the reunification of the motherland and overall social progress. Since 1989, the central committees of the democratic parties have submitted to the CPC Central Committee, the State Council and departments concerned nearly 180 important proposals on the overall work of the CPC and the state, as well as on issuesthat are key to the national economy and the people's livelihood, especially the two major tasks of economic construction and peaceful reunification, on the basis of investigations they have conducted, and their local organizations have submitted more than 80,000 proposals and motions. Many of the proposals and motions have been adopted. The local organizations of the democratic parties at various levels have devised more than 40,000 consultingprograms, run more than 1,000 schools of various kinds and trainedabout 3 million people in various special skills.

    In February 2005, the CPC promulgated the "Opinions of the CPC Central Committee on Further Strengthening the Building of the System of Multi-Party Cooperation and Political Consultation Underthe Leadership of the CPC," which, on the basis of summing up historical experience and successful operations in multi-party cooperation and political consultation, further clarified the principles, contents, ways and procedures of the system of multi-party cooperation and political consultation, and pointed the direction for improving the socialist political party system with Chinese characteristics.

    The political advantages of the system of multi-party cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of theCPC lie in the fact that it can both achieve wide democratic participation, pool the wisdom of the democratic parties, mass organizations and people of all walks of life and promote the scientific and democratic decision-making of the party in power and the governments at all levels, and realize centralization and unity and draw up unified plans with due consideration given to the interests of different sections of the people. Moreover, it can avoid both the problem of insufficient supervision common under one party rule, and political chaos and a lack of stability and unity that may be caused by the disputes and strife of severalparties.

V. The System of Ethnic Regional Autonomy     

    China is a unitary multi-ethnic country. To date, 56 ethnic groups have been identified and recognized by the central government. The population of the Han ethnic group accounts for the majority. As the population of the other 55 ethnic groups is relatively small, they are customarily referred to as "ethnic minorities." According to statistics collected in the fifth national census, conducted in 2000, the population of all ethnic minority groups totaled 106.43 million, accounting for 8.41 percent of the national total.

    To solve the problems of ethnic groups, different systems have been adopted by different multi-ethnic countries around the world,and what China practices is the system of ethnic regional autonomy. Ethnic regional autonomy means that, under the unified leadership of the state, organs of self-government are establishedfor the exercise of autonomy and regional autonomy is practiced inareas where people of ethnic minorities live in compact communities. China's adoption of ethnic regional autonomy to solvethe ethnic problems is an institutional arrangement based on its own historical development, cultural characteristics, ethnic relations and distribution of the ethnic groups, as well as other specific conditions, which is in accord with the common interests of all ethnic groups and their demands for development. Both the Constitution and the Law on Ethnic Regional Autonomy contain clearstipulations on ethnic regional autonomy and its implementation. The system of ethnic regional autonomy is a basic political systemof China.

    Ethnic autonomous areas in China are divided into three levels,namely, autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties. In 1947, before the People's Republic of China was founded, under the leadership of the CPC, the first provincial-level autonomous region in China -- the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region -- was established in the liberated areas inhabited by Mongolians in compact communities. After New China was founded in 1949, the Chinese government began to introduce thesystem of ethnic regional autonomy to all areas where ethnic minorities lived in compact communities. In October 1955, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region was established; in March 1958, the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region was established; in October 1958, the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region was established; and in September 1965, the Tibet Autonomous Region was established. Now, China has established 155 ethnic autonomous areas, including five autonomous regions, 30 autonomous prefectures and 120 autonomous counties (banners). Of the 55 ethnic minorities, 44 have their ownautonomous areas. The population of ethnic minorities implementingregional autonomy accounts for 71 percent of the total population of ethnic minorities. Meanwhile, China has established 1,173 autonomous townships in places equivalent to townships where ethnic minorities live in compact communities, as a supplement to the autonomous areas. Of the 11 ethnic minorities for which regional autonomy is not implemented because their populations andhabitats are relatively small, nine have set up autonomous townships.

    In accordance with the Constitution and the Law on Ethnic Regional Autonomy, the organs of self-government of ethnic autonomous areas are the people's congresses and people's governments of autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties. In addition to exercising the functions and powers of local state organs at the corresponding level, they alsoexercise the power of autonomy. First, independently managing the internal affairs of their ethnic groups in their autonomous areas.Among the chairpersons or vice-chairpersons of the standing committees of the people's congresses of all 155 autonomous areas in China, there are citizens of the ethnic group or groups exercising regional autonomy in the area concerned. The chairperson of an autonomous region, the prefect of an autonomous prefecture and the head of an autonomous county are all citizens of the ethnic group or groups exercising regional autonomy in the area concerned. In the working departments of the self-government organs in these autonomous areas, a rational proportion of officials from the ethnic group or groups exercising regional autonomy as well as members of other minorities living in the areaconcerned are appointed in accordance with the law. At present, minority officials total more than 2.9 million nationwide. Second,having the power to formulate regulations on the exercise of autonomy and separate regulations. By the end of 2004, the ethnic autonomous areas had formulated 133 regulations on the exercise ofautonomy and 418 separate regulations, all of which are still effective now. In the light of the particular situation in each area, they had made 68 flexible alterations or supplementary regulations to such laws as the Marriage Law, the Law of Succession, the Election Law, the Law on Land Administration and the Grassland Law. Third, using and developing their own spoken and written languages. At present, 22 ethnic minorities in China use 28 written languages of their own. In 2003, 4,787 titles of books with a total print-run of 50.34 million copies, 205 magazines with a total print-run of 7.81 million volumes, and 88 newspapers with a total print-run of 131.3 million copies were published in the languages of ethnic minorities. Now available arecoded character sets, national standards for fonts and keyboards in the Mongolian, Tibetan, Uygur, Korean and Yi languages, software in these languages can be run using the Windows system, and laser photo-typesetting in these languages has been realized. Fourth, respecting and protecting the freedom of religious belief of ethnic minorities. By the end of 2004, Tibetan Buddhist sites numbered more than 1,700 in the Tibet Autonomous Region, with 46,000 resident monks and nuns, and mosques numbered 23,900 in theXinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, with 27,000 clerical personnel. In addition, regional autonomous areas have the right to preserve or reform their own folk ways and customs, independently arrange, manage and develop the economic construction of the locality concerned, independently manage local revenues, and independently develop undertakings of education, science and technology, cultureand sports.

    The state assists ethnic autonomous areas to accelerate their economic and social development through various measures. Primarily they are: giving strategic prominence to speeding up the developm



  前 言



  由于国情的不同,各国人民争取和发展民主的道路是不同的。中国共产党和中国人民根据自己的国情进行了新民主主义革命,在新中国成立后又从社会主 义初级阶段的实际出发,实行有自己特点的社会主义民主。几十年来的实践证明,走中国人民自己选择的这条民主政治发展道路,中国人民不仅实现了当家作主的愿 望,而且正在逐步实现把国家建设成为社会主义现代化强国的共同理想。

  中国特色社会主义民主正在不断健全、完善和发展。自20世纪70年代末实行改革开放政策以来,中国在深化经济体制改革的同时,坚定不移地推进政 治体制改革,中国的民主制度不断健全,民主形式日益丰富,人民充分行使自己当家作主的权利。中国特色社会主义民主政治建设正在与时俱进,不断呈现蓬勃生机 和旺盛活力。


  人类几千年政治文明史,反复印证了一个道理:一个国家实行什么样的政治制度,走什么样的民主道路,要与一国的国情相适应。中国的社会主义民主政 治,植根于中华民族几千年来赖以生存和发展的广阔沃土,产生于中国共产党和中国人民为争取民族独立、人民解放和国家富强而进行的伟大实践,是适合中国国情 和社会进步要求的选择。


  中国经历过漫长的封建社会时代,直到1840年后西方资本主义列强发动一次又一次侵华战争,由于封建统治阶级的腐朽衰败,才逐渐沦为半殖民地半 封建社会。在此后的近110年时间里,中国成为全世界几乎所有大小帝国主义国家掠夺的对象。中华民族危难深重,外遭帝国主义的侵略,内受封建主义的压迫, 人民根本没有民主权利。为改变国家和民族的命运,一代又一代中国人奋起反抗,进行了前仆后继的英勇斗争。

  在救亡图存运动中,一些先进的中国人曾经把目光转向西方寻求救国救民的道路,在中国发动资产阶级民主革命。1911年中国民主革命的先行者孙中 山先生领导的辛亥革命,终结了统治中国两千多年的君主专制制度。但是,辛亥革命后试图模仿西方民主制度模式建立的资产阶级共和国,包括议会制、多党制等, 并没有实现中国人民要求独立、民主的迫切愿望,很快就在中外各种反动势力的冲击下归于失败。时人悲愤地感叹道:“无量头颅无量血,可怜购得假共和。”中国 人民仍然处于被压迫、被奴役、被剥削的悲惨境地。中国的出路在哪里?中国人民在黑暗中思考着、摸索着、奋斗着。

  中国人民从艰难曲折的探索和斗争中终于认识到,在中国,照搬西方资本主义政治制度是一条走不通的路,要完成救亡图存和反帝反封建的历史任务,必 须以新思想新理论开创中国革命的新道路,建立全新的政治制度。领导中国人民找到这条新道路和建立新制度的重任,历史地落在了中国共产党身上。1921年, 一批接受过民主与科学思想洗礼的先进知识分子,把马克思列宁主义同中国工人运动相结合,建立了中国共产党。此后,在中国共产党的领导下,中国革命进入了彻 底反帝反封建反官僚资本主义的新民主主义发展阶段,经过长达28年的艰苦卓绝的英勇奋战,最终实现了民族独立和人民解放。

  作为中国工人阶级的先锋队,同时是中国人民和中华民族的先锋队,中国共产党自成立起就以实现和发展人民民主为己任。中国共产党领导人民进行革命 的目的是要实现大多数人的民主,而不是少数人的民主。中国共产党创造性地把马克思主义普遍真理与中国革命的具体实际相结合,先后提出了“工农民主”、“人 民民主”、“新民主主义”等民主概念,不断丰富和发展马克思主义的民主政治理论,并先后以罢工工人代表大会、农民协会、工农兵代表苏维埃、参议会、各界人 民代表会议等实践和组织形式,创造适合中国国情、能够保证人民当家作主的民主政治实现形式。这些与当时国民党的统治制度形成了鲜明对照,反映了人民的意愿 并得到人民的拥护。

  1949年9月,新中国成立前夕召开的中国人民政治协商会议第一届全体会议,是中国共产党和各民主党派、人民团体、无党派民主人士按照民主原则 共商建国大计的一次重要会议,确立了新中国的国家制度和政权组织形式。会议通过的具有临时宪法地位的《中国人民政治协商会议共同纲领》明确规定:“中华人 民共和国为新民主主义即人民民主主义的国家,实行工人阶级领导的、以工农联盟为基础的、团结各民主阶级和国内各民族的人民民主专政……”;“中华人民共和 国的国家政权属于人民。人民行使国家权力的机关为各级人民代表大会和各级人民政府。”1949年10月1日中华人民共和国的成立,标志着中国人民在中国共 产党的领导下取得了新民主主义革命的伟大胜利,中国人民的政治地位发生了根本变化。从此,中国人民开始真正当家作主,成为国家、社会和自己命运的主人。新 中国的建立,使中国实现了从两千多年的封建专制政治、近代以来照搬西方民主政治模式的失败尝试向新型人民民主政治的伟大跨越。

  新中国成立不久,1953年在全国范围内进行了中国历史上第一次规模空前的普选,人民通过选举自己的代表行使当家作主的权利,自下而上地逐级召 开人民代表大会。1954年9月,第一届全国人民代表大会第一次会议的召开,标志着人民代表大会制度在全国范围内正式建立。此前经过全国人民广泛讨论并在 这次会议上通过的《中华人民共和国宪法》,把工人阶级领导的、以工农联盟为基础的人民民主专政的国家制度和人民代表大会的政体制度,确立为中华人民共和国 的根本政治制度,并明确规定:中华人民共和国的一切权力属于人民;人民行使权力的机关是全国人民代表大会和地方各级人民代表大会;全国人民代表大会、地方 各级人民代表大会和其他国家机关,一律实行民主集中制。

  人民代表大会制度的建立和《中华人民共和国宪法》的颁布施行,使中国人民行使当家作主的权利有了可靠的制度保障和宪法依据。到1956年,中国 绝大多数地区基本上完成了对生产资料私有制的社会主义改造,完成了从新民主主义向社会主义的过渡,建立了社会主义的基本制度,实现了中国历史上最广泛最深 刻的社会变革。但是,新中国的民主政治建设在探索中也走过弯路,特别是“文化大革命”(1966―1976年)的严重错误,使中国的民主政治建设经历了严 重挫折,留下了沉痛教训。

  20世纪70年代末实行改革开放政策以来,中国共产党深刻总结正反两方面历史经验,领导人民进入了中国社会主义民主政治建设的新时期。没有民主 就没有社会主义,就没有社会主义的现代化;必须加强社会主义法制,使民主制度化、法律化;依法治国,建设社会主义法治国家;发展社会主义民主政治,建设社 会主义政治文明;坚持共产党的领导、人民当家作主和依法治国的有机统一;以人为本,执政为民,构建社会主义和谐社会等,成为中国共产党和全国各族人民完善 和发展社会主义民主政治的共识和前进指针。

  近20多年来,中国社会主义民主政治建设在实践中取得了许多重大进展。人民代表大会制度、中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度、民族区域自 治制度等国家民主制度不断完善和发展,城乡基层民主不断扩大,公民的基本权利得到尊重和保障,中国共产党民主执政能力进一步提高,政府民主行政能力显著增 强,司法民主体制建设不断推进。国家领导制度、立法制度、行政管理制度、决策制度、司法制度、人事制度和监督制约制度等方面的改革取得了显著成效。在依法 治国,建设社会主义法治国家目标的指引下,社会主义民主的制度化、规范化和程序化建设不断加强,以宪法为核心的中国特色社会主义法律体系初步形成,国家政 治、经济、文化、社会生活的主要方面基本做到了有法可依。


  ――中国的民主是中国共产党领导的人民民主。没有中国共产党,就没有新中国,也就没有人民民主,这是被历史证明了的客观事实。中国人民当家作 主,是在中国共产党领导下经过艰苦卓绝的斗争实现的。中国的民主政治制度,是中国共产党领导中国人民创建的。中国民主政治制度的发展和完善,是在中国共产 党领导下进行的。中国共产党的领导从根本上保证了人民当家作主。

  ――中国的民主是由最广大人民当家作主的民主。人民当家作主是中国社会主义民主的本质。在中国,公有制经济是社会主义制度的经济基础。在社会主 义初级阶段,国家坚持公有制为主体、多种所有制经济共同发展的基本经济制度,坚持按劳分配为主体、多种分配方式并存的分配制度。这就从经济基础上决定了中 国的民主不受资本的操纵,不是少数人的民主,是最广大人民的民主。在中国,享有民主权利的人民范围包括一切不被法律剥夺政治权利的人。

  ――中国的民主是以人民民主专政作为可靠保障的民主。人民民主专政,一方面要求在人民内部实行最广泛的民主,尊重和保障人权,保证国家权力掌握 在人民手中,为人民服务;另一方面要求对破坏社会主义制度、危害国家安全和公共安全、侵犯公民人身权利和民主权利、贪污贿赂和渎职等各种犯罪行为,依法使 用专政手段予以制裁,以保障最广大人民的根本利益。

  ――中国的民主是以民主集中制为根本组织原则和活动方式的民主。民主集中制是中国国家政权的根本组织原则和领导原则。实行民主集中制,就是要求 充分发扬民主,集体议事,使人民的意愿和要求得到充分表达和反映,在此基础上集中正确意见,集体决策,使人民的意愿和要求得以落实和满足。实行民主集中 制,还要求“尊重多数,保护少数”,反对无政府主义的“大民主”,反对把个人意志凌驾于集体之上。

  二、 中国共产党领导人民当家作主

  中国共产党的领导地位,是在中国人民追求民族独立、国家富强、生活幸福的长期斗争和实践中逐步形成的,是历史的选择、人民的选择。中国革命、建 设和改革的历程向世人昭示:是中国共产党领导人民找到了一条实现民族独立和人民解放的正确道路,是中国共产党领导人民找到了一条建设富强、民主、文明的现 代化国家的正确道路。也正因如此,中国共产党的领导地位被明确载入了《中华人民共和国宪法》。


  ――中国共产党的领导和执政,是推进社会主义现代化建设和实现中华民族伟大复兴的需要。摆脱国家贫穷落后面貌,实现现代化和民族复兴,是中国人 民的百年追求和梦想。在中国共产党的领导下,经过新中国成立56年来的探索和奋斗,中国彻底改变了一穷二白的落后面貌,生产力迅猛发展,综合国力显著增 强,人民生活明显改善,国际地位不断提高,国际影响日益扩大。特别是改革开放20多年来,中国创造了国内生产总值年均增长9.4%的经济奇迹,13亿中国 人民生活总体上达到了小康水平。在中国共产党的领导下,朝着富强、民主、文明的社会主义现代化目标继续前进,是中国人民坚定不移的选择。

  ――中国共产党的领导和执政,是维护中国国家统一、社会和谐稳定的需要。历史反复证明,在中国,没有国家的统一和社会的稳定,就没有国家的繁荣 富强和人民的安居乐业。近代中国,深受外国入侵、军阀混战和政局动荡之害。中国人民对此刻骨铭心。中国的统一和稳定,是中国人民之福,也符合世界各国人民 的共同利益。维护国家统一和社会稳定,历来是中国各族人民最关切的头等重要的大事。中国共产党作为中国各族人民根本利益的忠实代表,以科学理论为指导,依 靠其遍布全国的近 350万个党组织和6960万名党员,凭借其丰富的执政经验和驾驭全局的能力,统筹经济社会等各方面发展,努力构建社会主义和谐社会,维护了国家统一和社 会和谐稳定。

  ――中国共产党的领导和执政,是保证政权稳定的需要。中国幅员辽阔,人口众多,且城乡之间、地区之间发展不平衡,差异较大,因此,保证政权稳定 对中国意义非同寻常。只有保持政权的稳定,才能聚精会神搞建设,一心一意谋发展;才能使国家现代化的发展战略和奋斗目标,在长时间里得以一以贯之地实行; 才能减少各种不必要的或不应有的政治内耗,最大限度地调动一切积极因素,集中一切资源、力量和智慧,解决关系国计民生的重大问题,保证经济社会的可持续发 展。

  ――中国共产党的领导和执政,是把亿万人民团结凝聚起来,共同建设美好未来的需要。四分五裂,一盘散沙,是近代旧中国社会的真实写照。中国人民 对此有着切肤之痛。在中国这样一个人口众多、情况复杂的大国,如果没有一个坚强有力的政治核心,没有一个能把全国各族人民凝聚起来共同奋斗的崇高目标,国 家就会分崩离析,就不可能不断实现发展和进步。实践充分证明,在中国,是中国共产党把广大人民团结起来,使人民的积极性、主动性和创造性不断得到充分的发 挥,为实现共同利益、共同事业、共同理想和中国更美好的未来,同心同德地共同奋斗。

  中国共产党领导和执政,本质是领导、支持和保证人民当家作主。中华人民共和国的一切权力属于人民。这是中国民主政治建设的根本准则,也是中国共 产党领导和执政的本质要求。在中国,中国共产党领导、支持和保证人民当家作主,就是从制度上、法律上保障这一根本准则在国家和社会生活中得到充分和切实的 贯彻和体现。中国共产党领导人民制定宪法和法律,带头遵守和维护宪法和法律,坚决与一切违反宪法和法律的行为做斗争。

  中国共产党领导、支持和保证人民当家作主的具体实现形式:一是领导人民通过人民代表大会制度掌握国家权力,以此保证国家制定的法律和方针、政策 能够体现人民的共同意志,维护人民的根本利益,保障人民当家作主。二是领导人民依照宪法和法律规定,通过各种途径和形式,管理国家事务,管理经济和文化事 业,管理社会事务,以此保证国家各项事业的发展符合人民的意愿、利益和要求。三是领导人民实行基层民主,由群众依法办理自己的事情,通过民主选举、民主决 策、民主管理、民主监督,实行自我管理、自我教育、自我服务。四是领导人民严格贯彻公民在法律面前一律平等的原则,使公民享有法律上、事实上的广泛的自由 和权利,尊重和保障人权,维护公平与正义。通过这些制度和法律保障,人民真正作为国家的主人,运用属于自己的公共权力和各项公民权利去维护和实现自己的利 益。



  中国根据自己的国情实行一院制,而不是西方国家实行的两院制。中国宪法规定:中华人民共和国全国人民代表大会是最高国家权力机关。在中国,国家 行政机关、审判机关、检察机关都由人民代表大会产生,对它负责,受它监督。国家的重大事项由人民代表大会决定。行政机关负责执行人民代表大会通过的法律、 决议、决定。法院、检察院依照法律规定分别独立行使审判权、检察权,不受行政机关、社会团体和个人的干涉。

  全国人民代表大会和地方各级人民代表大会都由民主选举产生,对人民负责,受人民监督。中国宪法规定,年满18周岁的公民,不分民族、种族、性 别、职业、家庭出身、宗教信仰、教育程度、财产状况、居住期限,除依法被剥夺政治权利的人外,都有选举权和被选举权。中国的县、乡两级人民代表大会代表都 由选民直接选举产生,多年来享有选举权和被选举权的人数占18周岁以上公民人数的99%以上,参选率在90%左右。根据中国的实际情况,目前县以上的各级 人民代表大会代表通过间接选举产生,即由下一级人民代表大会选举产生上一级人民代表大会代表。无论直接选举,还是间接选举,都依法实行差额选举。选民和选 举单位有权依照法律规定的程序,罢免或者撤换自己选出的代表。目前全国各级人民代表大会代表共有280多万人。各级人大代表来自各民族、各行业、各阶层、 各党派,具有广泛的代表性。各级人民代表大会中均有相当数量的工人、农民代表。第十届全国人民代表大会代表中,工人、农民代表占总数的18.4%。为保证 国家的权力真正掌握在全体人民手中,代表在履行职责时,必须反映和代表人民的利益和意志。代表有权依法提出议案、审议各项议案和报告、对各项议案进行表 决,在人民代表大会各种会议上的发言和表决受法律保护。

  中国宪法和法律规定,全国人民代表大会、地方各级人民代表大会每届任期五年,全国人民代表大会会议每年举行一次,地方各级人民代表大会会议每年 至少举行一次。中国选举法还规定,全国人民代表大会代表名额不超过3000人。由于全国人民代表大会代表人数较多,不便经常开会议事,根据中国宪法规定, 全国人民代表大会设立了常务委员会,在全国人大闭会期间行使最高国家权力机关的职能。全国人大常委会一般每两个月举行一次会议。全国人民代表大会常务委员 会由委员长、副委员长若干人、秘书长、委员若干人组成。第十届全国人民代表大会常务委员会组成人员为175人,其中委员长1人,副委员长15人。中国的县 级以上地方各级人大也设立常委会,全国人大常委会和县级以上地方各级人大常委会组成人员由代表大会在代表中通过差额选举产生,每届任期同代表大会相同。


  人民代表大会及其常务委员会举行会议时,有关部门负责人可以列席会议,有关部门和个人可以旁听会议。列席会议人员有发言权,无表决权。旁听人员 没有发言权,如果他们对常委会正在审议的议案有意见,可以书面向常委会工作机构提出。近年来,一些地方召开常委会会议时,按照公民报名顺序,确定旁听人 选。


  ――立法权。中国宪法规定,全国人民代表大会和全国人民代表大会常务委员会行使国家立法权,主要是修改宪法,制定和修改刑事、民事、国家机构的 和其他的基本法律。省级人大及其常委会根据本行政区域的具体情况和实际需要,在不同国家宪法、法律、行政法规相抵触的前提下,可以制定地方性法规;较大的 市的人大及其常委会根据本市的具体情况和实际需要,在不同国家宪法、法律、行政法规和本省、自治区的地方性法规相抵触的前提下,可以制定地方性法规,报 省、自治区的人大常委会批准后施行;经济特区所在地的省、市的人大及其常委会根据全国人大的授权决定,可以制定法规,在经济特区范围内实施;民族自治地方 的人民代表大会还有权依照当地民族的政治、经济和文化特点,制定自治条例和单行条例,对法律、行政法规的规定作变通。

  从1949年中华人民共和国成立至1978年的30年间,全国人民代表大会曾制定法律134件,其中至今仍然有效的有16件。自改革开放以来, 中国的社会主义民主法制建设进入一个崭新的时期。全国人大于1982年全面修改了宪法,以后又通过四个宪法修正案。全国人大及其常委会制定了200多件现 行有效的法律和200多件关于法律问题的决定,地方人大及其常委会制定了7500多件现行有效的地方性法规,民族自治地方的人民代表大会制定了600多件 自治条例和单行条例。

  近年来,中国的立法民主不断向前推进。几乎每一件法案的起草都采取专家座谈会、论证会等形式,听取专家的意见。有的法案还由立法机构直接委托社 会研究部门起草。对于调整重要社会关系的立法项目,地方人大常委会还经常召开听证会,让不同利害关系方发表意见。中国立法法对立法听证会作出了规定。 1982年以来,全国人大及其常委会在制定包括宪法修正案、婚姻法修改草案、合同法草案、物权法草案在内的10多项关系到人民切身利益的重要法律案过程 中,都把草案向全民公布征求意见。人民群众直接参与法律的制定,不仅提高了立法质量,使法律能够充分体现人民的意愿和要求,而且增强了全社会的法律意识, 通过后也能比较顺利地执行。

  ――监督权。监督宪法和法律的实施,是全国人大及其常委会行使监督权的主要内容。这种监督的基本形式是执法检查、法规备案审查。在执法检查方 面,九届全国人大常委会先后22次对21件法律的实施情况进行了监督检查,十届全国人大常委会在2003年和2004年两年时间里,检查了10件法律实施 情况。地方人大常委会也在本行政区域范围内对法律、有关法规实施情况进行了检查。人大常委会通过执法检查,进一步了解和掌握法律、法规实施中的真实情况和 存在的问题,督促同级政府和法院、检察院改进执法工作,促进了法律实施主管机关依法行政、公正司法。在法规备案审查方面,截止到目前,报送全国人大常委会 备案的地方性法规共7500多件,自治条例和单行条例共600多件,经济特区法规近300件。十届全国人大常委会成立了专门的审查机构,使这项工作进一步 规范化。省级人大常委会、较大的市人大常委会也依法开展了地方政府规章的备案审查工作。通过备案审查,撤销违反宪法和法律的法规、规章,督促有关制定机关 纠正不适当的条文,对保障国家法制统一具有重要的作用。近年来,全国人大常委会开始对最高人民法院、最高人民检察院的司法解释进行备案审查。

  监督同级政府和法院、检察院的工作,是人大及其常委会行使监督权的另一重要内容。听取和审议“一府两院”的工作报告,是人大及其常委会进行工作 监督的基本形式。人民代表大会举行会议的时候,同级人民政府、人民法院、人民检察院向大会报告工作,人民政府还须向大会提出预算草案、国民经济和社会发展 计划草案,预算草案须经大会审查批准。人民代表大会常务委员会召开会议时,经常就关系改革发展稳定全局的重大问题和同人民群众切身利益密切相关的热点难点 问题,听取有关专题工作报告或汇报。九届全国人大的五年间,常委会共听取和审议了40个专题报告;十届全国人大的头两年,常委会共听取和审议了22个专题 报告。

  ――人事任免权。人民代表大会及其常务委员会有权选举、决定、任免、撤换、罢免有关国家机构组成人员。全国人民代表大会选举国家主席、副主席, 中央军事委员会主席;根据国家主席的提名,决定国务院总理的人选;根据国务院总理的提名,决定国务院副总理、国务委员、各部部长、各委员会主任、审计长、 秘书长的人选;根据中央军事委员会主席的提名,决定中央军事委员会其他组成人员的人选;选举最高人民法院院长、最高人民检察院检察长。地方各级人民代表大 会依法认真履行对地方有关国家机构组成人员的选举、决定、任免、撤换、罢免。 ――重大事项决定权。全国人民代表大会依据宪法有权批准省、自治区、直辖市的建置,决定特别行政区的设立及其制度,决定战争和和平的问题,以及其他重大事 项。对国家经济和社会发展中的重大问题,如长江三峡工程等,须全国人民代表大会作出决议后方可实施。近年来,地方人大及其常委会就本地区的城市建设规划、 环境保护等重大事项行使了决定权。

  实践充分证明,人民代表大会制度是符合中国国情、体现中国社会主义国家性质、能够保证中国人民当家作主的根本政治制度。它植根于人民群众,具有 强大的生命力;它代表广大人民的共同意志和根本利益,动员全体人民以主人翁的地位投身国家建设,保证国家机关协调高效运转,维护国家统一和民族团结。中国 各族人民通过人民代表大会制度牢牢地把国家和民族的前途命运掌握在自己手里。


  实行何种政党制度是由国家性质、国情、国家利益和社会发展要求所决定的。中国的政党制度既不同于西方国家的两党或多党竞争制,也有别于一些国 家实行的一党制,而是中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度。这一政党制度是中国共产党与各民主党派在中国革命、建设和改革的长期实践中确立和发展起来 的,是中国共产党同各民主党派风雨同舟、团结奋斗的成果,是当代中国的一项基本政治制度。

  中国目前共有九个政党。除中国共产党外,还有中国国民党革命委员会(1948年成立)、中国民主同盟(1941年成立)、中国民主建国会 (1945年成立)、中国民主促进会(1945年成立)、中国农工民主党(1930年成立)、中国致公党(1925年成立)、九三学社(1945年成 立)、台湾民主自治同盟(1947年成立)。由于这些政党大都成立于中国人民抗日战争(1937—1945年)和解放战争(1946—1949年)时期, 是在争取实现民族解放和人民民主的斗争中建立的,因此被称为“民主党派”。在当今中国,民主党派是各自所联系的一部分社会主义劳动者、社会主义事业建设者 和拥护社会主义爱国者的政治联盟。无党派人士也是中国政治生活中的一支重要力量。无党派人士是指没有参加任何党派、对社会有积极贡献和一定影响的人士,其 主体是知识分子。

  中国政党制度的显著特征是:中国共产党领导、多党派合作,中国共产党执政、多党派参政。各民主党派是与中国共产党团结合作的亲密友党和参政 党,而不是反对党或在野党。各民主党派参加国家政权,参与国家大政方针和国家领导人选的协商,参与国家事务的管理,参与国家方针政策、法律法规的制定和执 行。

  在中国,中国共产党与各民主党派有着共同的奋斗目标。中国宪法规定:“中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度将长期存在和发展。”中国共产 党与各民主党派合作的基本方针是“长期共存、互相监督、肝胆相照、荣辱与共”。中国的国情和国家性质决定了中国共产党的领导是多党合作的首要前提和根本保 证。同时,这种领导又不是简单的包办,而是政治领导,即政治原则、政治方向和重大方针政策的领导。中国共产党与各民主党派都以宪法为根本活动准则,负有维 护宪法尊严、保证宪法实施的职责。

  中国人民政治协商会议是中国人民爱国统一战线的组织,是中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商的重要机构,也是中国政治生活中发扬民主的重要形 式。中国人民政治协商会议全国委员会由中国共产党、各民主党派、无党派人士、人民团体、各少数民族和各界的代表,香港特别行政区同胞、澳门特别行政区同 胞、台湾同胞和归国侨胞的代表以及特别邀请的人士组成,设若干界别。中国人民政治协商会议全国委员会设主席、副主席若干人和秘书长,每届任期五年,全体会 议每年举行一次。在中国,省、自治区、直辖市设中国人民政治协商会议省、自治区、直辖市委员会;自治州、设区的市、县、自治县、不设区的市和市辖区,凡有 条件的地方,均可设立中国人民政治协商会议各该地方的地方委员会,每届任期五年,全体会议每年至少举行一次。人民政协围绕团结和民主两大主题开展工作,履 行政治协商、民主监督、参政议政职能。中国人民政治协商会议在国家政治生活、社会生活和对外友好活动中,在进行现代化建设、维护国家统一和团结中,发挥着 重要作用。中国共产党和各级政府就大政方针以及政治、经济、文化、社会生活中的重要问题,在决策之前和决策执行过程中在人民政协进行协商,广泛听取各方面 意见,集思广益,这是中国共产党和各级政府实现决策科学化和民主化的重要环节。


  ——中国共产党与各民主党派、无党派人士的政治协商逐步制度化和规范化。中共中央在作出重大决策之前,一般都邀请民主党派主要领导人和无党派 代表人士召开民主协商会、小范围谈心会、座谈会,通报情况,听取意见,共商国是。除会议协商外,民主党派中央可向中共中央提出书面建议。协商的主要内容包 括:中国共产党全国代表大会、中共中央委员会的重要文件;宪法和重要法律的修改建议;国家领导人的建议人选;关于推进改革开放的重要决定;国民经济和社会 发展的中长期规划;关系国家全局的一些重大问题;通报重要文件和重要情况并听取意见,以及其他需要同民主党派协商的重要问题等。在2003年和2004年 两年时间里,中共领导人亲自或委托有关部门召开的各种协商会、座谈会、通报会等共有36次,其中由中共中央总书记主持的有13次。

  ——民主党派成员、无党派人士在人民代表大会中发挥着重要作用。民主党派成员和无党派人士在全国人大代表、全国人大常委会及专门委员会中,均 占适当比例。通过在人民代表大会中的活动,他们反映民意,参与国家重大决策,制定法律,监督政府。2003年换届后,他们中有17.6万人担任全国各级人 大代表。其中,全国人大常委会副委员长7人,全国人大常委50人;省级人大常委会副主任41人,省级人大常委462人;市级人大常委会副主任352人,市 级人大常委2084人。

  ——民主党派成员和无党派人士担任各级政府和司法机关的领导职务。截至2004年底,共有3.2万多人在各级政府和司法机关担任县处级以上领 导职务。其中,有19人担任最高人民法院、最高人民检察院和中央国家机关有关部委领导职务;全国31个省、自治区、直辖市中,有非中共党员副省长、副主 席、副市长 27人;全国397个市(州、盟、区)人民政府中有354人担任副市(州、盟、区)长;有19人担任省级法院副院长和检察院副检察长,有87人担任地市级 法院副院长和检察院副检察长。他们与中国共产党干部互相支持,在国家机关中发挥着重要作用。

  ——民主党派和无党派人士在中国人民政治协商会议中发挥重要作用。各民主党派和各界代表人士通过参加人民政协,发表意见,提出提案和建议案, 开展参政议政工作。民主党派成员和无党派人士在各级政协委员、常委和领导人中有较大比例。2003年换届后,他们中有33.7万多人担任全国各级政协委 员。十届全国政协委员中,民主党派和无党派人士占 60.1%,政协常委中占65.2%,副主席24人中占13人。

  ——民主党派和无党派人士通过多渠道、多形式对执政党的工作实行民主监督。监督的主要内容有:国家宪法和法律法规的实施情况;中国共产党和政 府重要方针政策的制定和贯彻执行情况;中国共产党组织及党员领导干部履行职责、为政清廉等方面的情况。近年来,政府部门和司法机关通过聘请民主党派成员、 无党派人士担任特约人员,吸收和组织民主党派和无党派人士参加党风廉政建设情况的检查、其他专项检查和执法监督工作,使民主监督的渠道进一步拓宽,监督工 作不断加强。

  ——民主党派和无党派人士积极参与改革开放和现代化建设事业,为推动祖国统一大业和社会全面进步不断建言献策。1989年以来,各民主党派中 央围绕中国共产党和国家的工作大局以及事关国计民生的重大问题进行考察调研,特别是围绕经济建设、和平统一两大任务,先后向中共中央、国务院及有关部门提 出重大建议近180项,地方组织提出各项建议提案8万多件,其中许多都被采纳。民主党派各级地方组织共提供咨询服务项目4万多个,兴办各级各类学校 1000余所,培训各级各类专业人才约300万人次。

  2005年2月,中国共产党颁发《中共中央关于进一步加强中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度建设的意见》,在总结多党合作和政治协商的 历史经验和成功做法的基础上,进一步明确了多党合作和政治协商的原则、内容、方式、程序等,为健全完善中国特色社会主义政党制度指明了方向。

  中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度的政治优势在于:既能实现广泛的民主参与,集中各民主党派、各人民团体和各界人士的智慧,促进执政党 和各级政府决策的科学化、民主化,又能实现集中统一,统筹兼顾各方面群众的利益要求;既能避免一党执政缺乏监督的弊端,又可避免多党纷争、互相倾轧造成的 政治混乱和社会不安定团结。



  世界上的多民族国家在处理民族问题方面有不同的制度模式,中国采用的是民族区域自治。民族区域自治是在国家统一领导下,各少数民族聚居的地方 设立自治机关,行使自治权,实行区域自治。中国采用民族区域自治的办法解决民族问题,是根据本国的历史发展、文化特点、民族关系和民族分布等具体情况作出 的制度安排,符合各民族人民的共同利益和发展要求。中国宪法和民族区域自治法,对民族区域自治及其实施作出明确规定。民族区域自治制度是中国的一项基本政 治制度。

  中国的民族自治地方分为自治区、自治州、自治县三级。中华人民共和国成立之前的1947年,在中国共产党领导下,已经解放的中国蒙古族聚居地 区就建立了中国第一个省级民族自治地方——内蒙古自治区。新中国成立后,中国政府开始在少数民族聚居的地方全面推行民族区域自治。1955年10月,新疆 维吾尔自治区成立;1958年3月,广西壮族自治区成立;1958年10月,宁夏回族自治区成立;1965年9月,西藏自治区成立。目前,中国共建立了 155个民族自治地方,其中包括5个自治区、30个自治州、120个自治县(旗)。在55个少数民族中,有44个建立了自治地方,实行区域自治的少数民族 人口占少数民族总人口的71%。同时,中国还在相当于乡的少数民族聚居的地方建立了1173个民族乡,作为民族自治地方的补充形式。11个因人口较少且聚 居区域较小而没有实行区域自治的少数民族中,有9个建有民族乡。

  依据宪法和民族区域自治法的规定,民族自治地方的自治机关,是自治区、自治州、自治县的人民代表大会和人民政府,它们在行使同级地方国家机关 职权的同时,拥有自治权。一是自主管理本民族、本地区的内部事务。中国155个民族自治地方的人民代表大会常务委员会中都有实行区域自治的民族的公民担任 主任或副主任,自治区主席、自治州州长、自治县县长则全部由实行区域自治的民族的公民担任。民族自治地方的自治机关所属工作部门的其他组成人员中,依法合 理配备实行区域自治的民族干部和其他少数民族干部。目前,全国少数民族干部总数达290多万人。二是享有制定自治条例和单行条例的权力。截至2004年 底,民族自治地方共制定现行有效的自治条例133个,单行条例418个。民族自治地方根据本地的实际,对婚姻法、继承法、选举法、土地法、草原法等法律的 变通和补充规定有68件。三是使用和发展本民族语言文字。目前,中国有22个少数民族使用28 种本民族文字。2003年,用少数民族文字出版的图书有4787种,印数5034万册;杂志205种,印数781万册;报刊88种,印数13130万份。 目前,蒙古、藏、维吾尔、朝鲜、彝等少数民族文字已有编码字符集、字型、键盘的国家标准,文字软件已实现Windows系统上的运行和激光照排。四是尊重 和保护少数民族宗教信仰自由。截至2004年底,西藏自治区共有1700多处藏传佛教活动场所,住寺僧尼约4.6万人;新疆维吾尔自治区共有清真寺约 2.39万座,教职人员约2.7万人。此外,民族自治地方还有权保持或者改革本民族风俗习惯,自主安排、管理和发展本地方经济建设事业,自主管理地方财 政,自主发展教育、科技、文化、卫生、体育等社会事业。

  国家通过各种措施帮助和支持民族自治地方发展经济社会各项事业,主要包括:把加快民族自治地方的发展摆到更加突出的战略位置,优先合理安排民 族自治地方基础设施建设项目,加大对民族自治地方财政投入和金融支持力度,重视民族自治地方的生态建设和环境保护,采取特殊措施帮助民族自治地方发展教育 和科技事业,加大对少数民族贫困地区的扶持力度,增加对民族自治地方社会事业的投入,扶持民族自治地方扩大对外开放,组织发达地区与民族自治地方开展对口 支援,照顾少数民族特殊的生产生活需要,等等。中国政府于2000年开始实施西部大开发战略,到2004年底,陆续开工60多个重点工程,投资总规模达 8500多亿元,涉及交通、能源、教育、卫生、环保等多方面。全国5个自治区、27个自治州以及120个自治县中的83个自治县被纳入西部大开发范围。国 家制定的“八七扶贫攻坚计划”、“中国农村扶贫开发纲要”,以及组织实施的东部沿海发达地区和西部地区对口支援行动、“贫困地区义务教育工程”、“少数民 族贫困地区温饱基金”、“天然林保护工程”、广播电视“村村通工程”等,都将帮助民族地区加快发展作为重要内容。国家对西藏的发展给予特殊安排。1994 —2001年,中央政府在西藏直接投资39亿元人民币,建设了30项工程。第十个五年计划(2001—2005年)期间,中央政府在西藏投资312亿元人 民币,建设117个项目。

  在国家和发达地区的大力帮助和支援下,民族自治地方充分发挥自身优势,保持了经济发展、政治稳定、社会进步、民族和睦的良好局面。1994— 2003年,中国民族自治地方国内生产总值年均增速为 9.87%,高于全国平均水平近1个百分点。1994年民族自治地方人均国内生产总值相当于全国人均的63.5%,2003年上升至66.3%。2003 年,民族自治地方完成地方财政收入674亿元人民币,比1994年增加了2.3倍。同年,西藏人均国内生产总值为6871元人民币,相当于全国人均的 75.5%;新疆人均国内生产总值为9700元人民币,相当于全国人均的106.6%。

  由于成功地实行民族区域自治制度,中国少数民族依法自主地管理本民族事务,民主地参与国家和社会事务的管理,保证了中国各民族不论大小都享有 平等的经济、政治、社会和文化权利,共同维护国家统一和民族团结,反对分裂国家和破坏民族团结的行为,形成了各民族相互支持、相互帮助、共同团结奋斗、共 同繁荣发展的和谐民族关系。



  目前,中国已经建立了以农村村民委员会、城市居民委员会和企业职工代表大会为主要内容的基层民主自治体系。广大人民在城乡基层群众性自治组织 中,依法直接行使民主选举、民主决策、民主管理和民主监督的权利,对所在基层组织的公共事务和公益事业实行民主自治,已经成为当代中国最直接、最广泛的民 主实践。


  中国13亿人口中有8亿多在农村。如何扩大和发展农村基层民主,使农民在所在村庄真正当家作主,充分行使自己的民主权利,是中国民主政治建设 的重大问题。经过多年的探索和实践,中国共产党领导亿万农民找到了一条适合中国国情的推进农村基层民主政治建设的途径,这就是实行村民自治。


  中国宪法规定了村民委员会作为农村基层群众性自治组织的法律地位。中国的村民委员会组织法,对村民委员会的性质、职能、产生程序和任期等相关 问题作了明确规定,使农村基层民主自治走上健康发展的轨道。目前,全国31个省、自治区、直辖市已经制定或修订了村民委员会组织法实施办法或村委会选举办 法,使村民自治有了更加具体的法律法规保障。


  ——民主选举。按照宪法、村民委员会组织法等法律法规,由村民直接选举或罢免村民委员会成员。村民委员会由主任、副主任和委员三至七人组成, 每届任期三年。在选举过程中,村民委员会成员候选人由村民直接提名和参加投票选举,当场公布选举结果,做到公正、公开、公平。村民的参选热情高涨,据不完 全统计,全国农村居民的平均参选率在80%以上,有的地方高达90%以上。截至2004年底,中国农村已建立起64.4万个村民委员会。全国绝大多数省、 自治区、直辖市都普遍完成了五至六届村委会换届选举。

  ——民主决策。凡涉及村民利益的重要事项,都由村民会议或村民代表会议讨论,按多数人的意见作出决定。鉴于中国农村千差万别,村庄规模大小不 一,在一些人数较多、居住分散的村庄,村民会议面临难组织、难召开、难议决的实际困难,通过设立村民代表会议,较好地解决了这个问题。目前,中国85%的 农村已经建立了实施民主决策的村民会议或村民代表会议制度。

  ——民主管理。依据国家法律法规和有关政策,结合本地实际情况,由全体村民讨论制定或修改村民自治章程或村规民约。村民委员会和村民按照被形 象地称为“小宪法”的自治章程,实行自我管理、自我教育和自我服务。目前,中国80%以上的村庄制定了村民自治章程或村规民约,建立了民主理财、财务审 计、村务管理等制度。





  新中国成立后,即在全国各个城市普遍建立居民委员会,实现城市居民对居住地公共事务管理的民主自治。1982年,城市居民委员会制度首次写入 中国宪法。 1989年,全国人大常委会制定了《城市居民委员会组织法》,为城市居民委员会发展提供了法律基础和制度保障。1999年,国家在全国26个城区开展了社 区建设的试点和实验工作。此后,在全国开展了社区建设示范活动。到2004年底,全国城市已经建立了符合新型社区建设要求的71375个居民委员会。目 前,城市社区建设正在由点到面、由大城市向中小城市、由东部地区向西部地区推进,以完善城市居民自治,建设管理有序、服务完善、环境优美、文明祥和的新型 社区正在全国展开。

  如同中国农村村民自治,城市社区居民自治的主要内容也是实行民主选举、民主决策、民主管理和民主监督。在民主选举方面,选举的形式经历了由候 选人提名到自荐报名,由等额选举到差额选举,由间接选举到直接选举,并打破了地域和身份的限制,民主程度不断提高。近年来,城市社区居民直选蓬勃发展。国 家有关部门对26个试点城区的调查表明,城市社区居民对社区居民委员会直选持积极参与的态度,超过九成选民参加了投票。通过直选成立的社区居民委员会呈现 出年轻化、知识化和职业化的趋势。在民主决策方面,社区居民是民主决策的主体,通过社区居民会议、协商议事会、听证会等有效形式和渠道,对社区内公共事务 进行民主决策。在民主管理方面,居委会依法办事,按照社区居民自治章程和规约规范工作,努力增强居民当家作主意识,实现“社区的事大家管”。在民主监督方 面,实行居民委员会事务公开,凡是居民关心的热点、难点问题和涉及全体居民切身利益的重大事务,都及时向居民公开,并通过召开居民评议会,听取居民意见, 接受居民监督。



  新中国成立后即在公有制企业中实行了职工代表会议制度,1957年后在全国普遍推行了这一制度。中国宪法、全民所有制工业企业法、劳动法、工 会法和全民所有制工业企业职工代表大会条例等法律法规,均对职工代表大会制度作了相应规定。依据有关法律,职工代表大会具有五项职权:对企业生产经营、发 展计划和方案有审议建议权;对工资、奖金、劳动保护、奖惩等重要规章制度有审查通过权;对有关职工生活福利等重大事项有审议决定权;对企业行政领导干部有 评议监督权;对厂长有推荐或选举权。

  在中国,职工代表大会具有广泛的群众基础,代表中不仅有工人,而且有科技人员、管理人员和其他工作人员,能够代表全体职工民主管理企业。职工 代表大会闭幕后,由企业工会委员会作为职代会的工作机构,负责职工代表大会的日常工作。从1998年起,厂务公开在国有企业、集体企业及其控股企业开始实 施,并逐步向非公有制企业拓展。截至2004年底,中国已建立工会的企事业单位有173.2万个;全国基层工会所在企事业单位建立职工代表大会的有 36.9万个,覆盖职工7836.4万人;实行厂务公开的有31.6万个,覆盖职工7061.2万人。目前,建立工会组织的公有制企业中有52.8%建立 职工代表大会,覆盖职工3502.6万人,占已建立工会公有制企业职工的72.9%;建立工会组织的非公有制企业中有 32.6%建立职工代表大会,覆盖职工2787万人,占已建工会非公有制企业职工的46.7%。

  改革开放以来,职工代表大会和其他形式的企事业单位的民主管理制度在实行民主管理、协调劳动关系、保障和维护职工合法权益、推进企事业单位的 改革发展稳定等方面发挥了不可替代的作用。国家坚持全心全意地依靠职工办企业的方针,随着改革开放的深入,将努力推动各类所有制企事业单位建立和完善民主 管理制度,切实解决在这方面存在的突出问题,确保职工的民主权利和合法权益得到落实。




  中国共产党作为中国人民根本利益的忠实代表,始终将维护国家主权和独立、保障和发展人民的各项权利作为根本任务,并将生存权、发展权作为首要 人权。中国共产党坚持把发展作为第一要务,贯彻以人为本、全面协调可持续的科学发展观,努力促进经济发展和社会进步,不断满足人民的多方面需求,实现人的 全面发展。


  ——人民的生存权和发展权得到保障。中国共产党坚持以经济建设为中心,在解决人民生存权和发展权方面作出了巨大努力。经过50多年的奋斗,人 民生活基本实现了从贫困到温饱、再从温饱到小康的两次历史性飞跃。中国用不到世界10%的耕地成功地解决了占世界22%人口的吃饭问题。从1979年到 2004年,中国经济连续快速增长,国内生产总值由1473亿美元增加到1.65万亿美元,人均突破1200美元。城乡居民年均收入,城镇实际增长4.5 倍,农村实际增长4.9倍。人均住房面积,城镇居民由6.7平方米上升到25平方米,农村居民由8.1平方米上升到28平方米。农村贫困人口由2.5亿人 减少到 2610万人。中国人民总体健康水平已超过中等收入国家的平均水平,处于发展中国家前列。平均期望寿命已从新中国成立前的35岁上升到2004年的近72 岁;孕产妇死亡率从新中国成立前的1500/10万下降到2004年的48.3/10万;婴儿死亡率由新中国成立前的200‰下降到2004年的 21.5‰。近年来,中国政府颁布实施了《国家公共卫生监测信息体系建设规划》、《突发公共卫生事件医疗救治体系建设规划》等一系列法规措施,加大了对公 民健康权、生命权的保护力度。

  ——公民权利和政治权利得到保障。中国宪法和法律保护公民的宗教信仰自由、言论出版自由、结社自由等权利,对公民的财产权、名誉权、姓名权、 荣誉权、人格尊严权、人身及住宅不受侵犯权等权利予以确认和保护。为使公民享有充分的知情权、监督权和参与公共事务管理等民主权利,中国不断建立健全信息 公开等相关制度。国家积极鼓励新闻出版事业的发展,2004年,中国出版发行全国性和省级报纸257.7亿份,各类期刊26.9亿册,图书64.4亿册 (张)。近年来,中国互联网发展迅猛,截至2005年6月30日,上网用户总数突破1亿,其中宽带上网达5300万人。国家尊重并保障公民宗教信仰自由, 依法保障信仰宗教的公民、宗教团体和宗教活动场所的合法权益不受侵犯。据不完全统计,中国现有各种宗教信徒1亿多人,各种宗教教职人员约30万人,宗教活 动场所10万多处。国家制定了《社会团体登记管理条例》、《民办非企业单位登记管理暂行条例》和《基金会管理条例》,依法保障公民结社自由。截至2004 年底,中国有各类民间组织28.9万个,其中社会团体15.3万个,民办非企业单位13.5万个,基金会近 900个。

  ——经济、社会、文化权利得到保障。中国宪法和法律法规对保障公民的劳动权、休息权、男女平等权、男女同工同酬权、知识产权、社会保障权、获 得物质帮助权、受教育权、结婚和离婚自由权,以及从事和参加科学研究、文学艺术和其他文化活动的权利等,作出全面规定。近年来,国家通过各种措施,着力解 决就业和再就业问题,加紧建立社会保障制度,加大对教育、科技、文化、卫生等社会事业的支持力度,努力将公民的经济、社会、文化权利落到实处。到2004 年底,全国城镇参加基本养老、失业、医疗和工伤保险的参保人数分别达到1.64亿人、1.06亿人、1.24亿人和6845万人,分别比上年底增加847 万人、211万人、1502万人和2270万人;农村社会养老保险参保人数达到5378万人,并呈较快发展态势;全国共有2205万城镇居民得到政府提供 的最低生活保障。中国已基本普及九年义务教育并基本扫除了青壮年文盲。2004年,中央政府用于农村义务教育的各类专项资金达100多亿元,比上年增长 70%;全国各类高等教育在校人数超过2000万人,高等教育毛入学率达19%。到2004年底,全国有广播电台282座,广播综合人口覆盖率为 94.1%;电视台314座,电视综合人口覆盖率为95.3%。国家不断加强对农民工合法权益的保护力度,并于2004年制定了《建设领域农民工工资支付 管理暂行办法》,全面清理和解决建筑领域拖欠工程款和进城务工农民的工资问题。

  ——妇女、老年人、未成年人等特殊群体和残疾人等弱势群体的合法权利得到保障。中国制定了妇女权益保障法、老年人权益保障法、未成年人保护 法、残疾人保障法,对妇女、老年人、未成年人等特殊群体和残疾人等弱势群体的保护作出特别规定。在中国,妇女参与国家事务的权利得到保障。从1975年的 第四届到2003年的第十届全国人民代表大会代表中,女代表比例均超过20%。目前,妇女的就业规模、劳动报酬和受教育水平与男性基本相当。中国已进入老 龄化社会,老年人受到政府和社会各方面的特殊关照。2004 年,全国发放企业退休人员基本养老金3031亿元人民币,中央财政补贴522亿元人民币。中国有18岁以下未成年人3.76亿,超过总人口的四分之一。中 国政府于1992年和2001年先后制定了《90年代中国儿童发展规划纲要》和《中国儿童发展纲要(2001—2010)》,从健康、教育、法律保护、环 境等领域,促进儿童发展。中国有残疾人6000万,相当于一个中等国家的人数。2004年,残疾人就业率达到80%,有330多万残疾人得到不同程度的康 复。

  ——少数民族权利得到保障。在中国,各少数民族同汉族一样,平等地享有宪法和法律规定的全部公民权利,以平等地位参与国家大事和各级地方事务 的管理。同时,少数民族的权利还受到法律和有关政策的特殊保障。根据宪法和选举法,在国家最高权力机关全国人民代表大会中,各少数民族都有适当名额的代 表,人口特别少的民族,至少有1名代表。从第一届全国人大开始,少数民族代表的比例一直保持在14%上下,大大高于少数民族占全国人口8%左右的比例。在 地方各级人大中,在当地聚居和散居的少数民族都有代表参加当地人民代表大会,而且每一少数民族代表所代表的人口数可以少于当地人民代表所代表的人口数。各 少数民族都可以担任国家机关和政府部门的各种职务。各民族都有使用和发展本民族语言文字的自由。国家尊重和保护少数民族的风俗习惯和宗教信仰自由。

  中国政府重视国际人权公约在促进人权方面的积极作用。到目前为止,中国已参加21项国际人权公约,并采取多种措施认真履行公约义务。中国政府 于1997年10月签署了《经济、社会及文化权利国际公约》,2001年2月中国全国人大常委会批准了该公约,中国政府于2003年如期向联合国提交了首 次履约报告,并于2005年4月接受联合国经济、社会及文化权利委员会审议。中国政府于1998年10月签署了《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》。目前,中 国有关部门正在加紧研究和准备,一旦条件成熟,国务院将提请全国人大常委会审议批约问题。



  民主执政,就是中国共产党要坚持为人民执政、靠人民执政,保证人民当家作主,坚持和完善人民民主专政,坚持和完善党和国家的民主集中制,以发 展党内民主带动和发展人民民主。2004年9月,中共十六届四中全会作出《中共中央关于加强党的执政能力建设的决定》,将民主执政与科学执政、依法执政一 起,确立为中国共产党执政的基本方式,开启了中国共产党加强民主执政能力建设、提高民主执政水平的新阶段。 (一)改革和完善领导体制和工作机制


  在实践中,中国共产党坚持科学执政、民主执政、依法执政,不断改革和完善领导体制和工作机制,按照执政党总揽全局、协调各方的原则,规范党委 与人大、政府、政协和人民团体的关系。一方面,党委在同级各种组织中发挥领导核心作用,支持各方独立负责、步调一致地开展工作,通过这些组织中的党组织和 党员干部贯彻党的路线方针政策,贯彻党委的重大决策和工作部署。另一方面,支持人民代表大会依法履行国家权力机关的职能,经过民主讨论和法定程序,使党的 主张成为国家意志,使党组织推荐的人选成为国家政权机关的领导人员,并对他们进行监督;支持政府履行法定职能,依法行政;支持审判机关和检察机关依法独立 公正地行使审判权和检察权;支持政协围绕团结和民主两大主题,履行政治协商、民主监督、参政议政的职能;加强同民主党派合作共事,充分发挥中国社会主义政 党制度的特点和优势;支持工会、共青团和妇联等人民团体依照法律和各自章程独立自主地开展工作,更好地发挥党联系各方面人民群众的桥梁和纽带作用。




  ——健全和完善党的代表大会制度。中国共产党在县以上各级党组织设立党的代表大会制度。党的全国代表大会,省(自治区、直辖市)、设区的市和 自治州,县(旗)、自治县、不设区的市和市辖区的党代表大会每五年举行一次。为进一步发挥党的各级代表大会的作用,从20世纪80年代末开始,中国共产党 在5个省的 12个市、县、区实行了党代表大会常任制的试点工作,取得明显成效。中共中央已决定建立党的代表大会代表提案制度,进一步扩大在市、县进行党的代表大会常 任制的试点,并积极探索在党代表大会闭会期间发挥代表作用的途径和形式。

  ——发挥党的委员会全体会议的作用。中国共产党按照集体领导、民主集中、个别酝酿、会议决定的原则,努力健全完善党委内部的议事和决策机制, 重点加强各级党委全体会议的作用。在中共十六届三中、四中、五中全会上,中共中央总书记代表中央政治局常委会向中央委员会报告工作。这是新一届中央领导集 体进一步发挥全委会作用的重要举措。各级地方党委领导班子也按照中央的要求,向同级党委全委会述职和报告工作,接受全委会的监督。


  ——建立健全党内监督机制。2003年12月,中共中央颁发《中国共产党党内监督条例(试行)》,第一次以党内法规形式对党内监督重点、途径 和办法等重大问题作出全面规定,明确提出党内监督的重点对象是各级领导机关、领导干部,特别是各级领导班子的主要负责人。2003年12月,中共中央颁发 修订后的《中国共产党纪律处分条例》,对新形势下党员各种违纪行为的处理作出了全面具体的明确规定。




  二是推行公开选拔和竞争上岗制度。《党政领导干部选拔任用工作条例》和中共中央办公厅2004年颁布的《公开选拔党政领导干部工作暂行规 定》、《党政机关竞争上岗工作暂行规定》,对公开选拔和竞争上岗的适用范围、选拔程序、考试考察方法、纪律和监督等作出明确规定,推进了这项工作的经常 化、制度化。

  三是完善党委对干部选拔任用的民主决策机制。在总结经验的基础上,2004年中共中央颁发《党的地方委员会全体会议对下一级党委、政府领导班 子正职拟任人选和推荐人选表决办法》明确规定:市(地、州、盟)、县(市、区、旗)党委、政府领导班子正职的拟任人选和推荐人选,一般应当由上一级党委常 委会提名并提交全委会无记名投票表决,全委会闭会期间急需任用时,应当征求全委会成员的意见。

  四是推行国家公务员制度。从1993年10月《国家公务员暂行条例》开始实施起,一大批素质好、年纪轻、学历高的优秀人才通过公开考试、择优 录用的办法进入了国家公务员队伍。2005年4月,全国人大常委会审议并通过了《中华人民共和国公务员法》,决定从2006年1月起正式实施这一法律。这 部法律的颁布实施,是推进干部人事工作科学化、民主化、制度化的重大举措,对于贯彻依法治国方略和推进社会主义民主政治建设具有重大意义。


  按照建立结构合理、配置科学、程序严密、制约有效的权力运行机制的目标,中国共产党把加强对权力约束的制度建设与对干部的有效监督结合起来。 一是加强对领导机关、领导干部特别是各级领导班子主要负责人的监督。包括对民主集中制和领导班子议事规则落实情况,领导干部重大事项报告、述职述廉、民主 评议、谈话诫勉、回复组织函询等制度执行情况的监督。二是加强对重点环节和重点部位权力行使的监督。包括对干部选拔任用工作、财政资金运行的监督,以及对 国有资产和金融的监管等。三是充分发挥各监督主体的作用,提高监督的整体效能。包括加强党内监督,支持和保证人大监督、政府专门机关监督、司法监督、政协 民主监督和舆论监督等。

  经过长期不懈努力,中国共产党初步探索出一套适合中国国情的制约和监督权力、反腐倡廉的制度、机制和办法。2005年1月,中共中央颁发《建 立健全教育、制度、监督并重的惩治和预防腐败体系实施纲要》,按照标本兼治、综合治理、惩防并举、注重预防的方针,对建立健全教育、制度、监督并重的惩治 和预防腐败体系作出全面部署。

  近年来,中国共产党按照民主集中制的原则,逐步推行党务公开,建立和完善党内情况通报、重大决策征求意见、领导干部重大事项报告和收入申报等 制度,充分发挥制度在反腐倡廉工作中的重要作用。中国共产党将进一步加强反腐败的制度化、法制化建设,不断完善反腐败领导体制、工作机制,制定反腐倡廉法 规制度建设的总体规划和中长期计划,更好地用制度和法律规范权力的运行;推动国家立法机关加快廉政立法进程,研究制定反腐败的专门法律,修改完善刑法、刑 事诉讼法等相关法律规定;继续深化干部人事制度、司法体制、行政审批制度改革和财政金融体制、投资体制、国有资产监管等方面的改革,以减少和消除产生腐败 现象的土壤和条件。

  中国共产党严肃查办党员干部违纪违法案件,坚决清除和惩处腐败分子。2003年12月至2004年11月,各级纪检监察机关共立案 162032件,结案160602件,给予党纪政纪处分164831人。其中县(处)级干部5916人,厅(局)级干部415人,省(部)级干部15人。 涉嫌犯罪被移送司法机关的有4775人,占受党纪政纪处分人员总数的2.9%。 


  中国政府是人民的政府。为人民服务、对人民负责,支持和保证人民行使当家作主的权利,是中国政府全部工作的根本宗旨。改革开放以来,特别是近 年来,中国各级政府按照民主执政的要求,围绕“形成行为规范、运转协调、公正透明、廉洁高效的行政管理体制”的目标,大力加强行政能力建设。2005年2 月经修改后公布的《国务院工作规则》,充分体现了科学民主决策、依法行政和加强行政监督的民主精神。


  1999年11月,中国国务院颁发《关于全面推进依法行政的决定》,明确了依法行政的任务和要求;2004年3月,印发了《全面推进依法行政 实施纲要》,提出了用十年左右时间基本实现建设法治政府的目标。2004年7月1日,《中华人民共和国行政许可法》正式实施。这部法律按照合理与合法、效 能与便民、监督与责任的原则,确立了行政许可的一系列原则和制度,在要求政府依法行政的同时,突出了政府行使权力的民主内涵。

  ——加强政府立法工作。1978年以来,中国国务院依法向全国人大常委会提请审议数百部法律议案,制定了 650多件现行有效的行政法规。近几年,中国政府坚持以人为本,执政为民,高度重视直接关系人民群众切身利益的立法,促进经济和社会事业全面协调发展。国 务院先后提请全国人大常委会审议安全生产法(草案)、传染病防治法(修订草案)、公务员法(草案)等法律议案,公布或修改公布了失业保险条例、城市居民最 低生活保障条例、劳动保障监察条例、宗教事务条例、工伤保险条例、城市生活无着的流浪乞讨人员救助管理办法、婚姻登记条例、法律援助条例、道路交通安全法 实施条例等行政法规。在立法中充分体现对社会困难群体的照顾,使政府行政体现更多的人文关怀。2005年,中国国务院重新修订《信访条例》并予以公布,依 法保障公民的批评、建议、申诉、控告和检举权利,强化了政府信访工作的责任,突出了权责统一、公开便民、保障公民权利的精神。

  ——改善行政执法。中国政府强调严格按照法定权限和程序行使职权,全面推行行政执法责任制,严格追究执法过错责任,不断强化执法人员依法行政 意识,减少和杜绝执法随意性。在执法过程中,注意依法保障当事人和利害关系人的权益,坚决纠正行政执法中损害群众利益和以权谋私等各种违法行为,切实做到 严格执法、公正执法、文明执法。近年来,政府坚决纠正和严肃处理了在城镇房屋拆迁、农村土地征用和征收等方面侵犯群众权益的违法行政行为。

  ——完善行政监督制度。中国政府在接受人大、政协、司法、舆论和群众监督的同时,还建立和完善了一系列行政监督制度。一是建立行政决策责任追 究制度。按照“谁决策、谁负责”的原则,对超越权限、违反程序决策造成重大损失的,严肃追究决策者责任。二是推行行政责任追究制,对政府官员的违法行政行 为予以追究。三是实行行政复议制度以及规章、规范性文件的备案审查制度,及时有效地监督所属部门和下级政府严格依法行政。四是加强审计、监察等专门监督。 国家审计署对中央财政预算执行和其他财政收支情况进行认真审计,向全国人大常委会和国务院作出报告,并对违反财政财务法规的问题作出审计处理决定。 2005年,中国决定在继续进行省(部)级领导干部经济责任审计的同时,将经济责任审计范围扩大到厅(局)级领导干部。



  ——依法界定政府的管理职能。按照凡是公民、法人或其他组织能够自主解决的,市场竞争机制能够调节的,行业组织或者中介机构通过自律机制能够 调整的事项,行政机关不要通过行政管理去解决的原则,逐步理顺政府与企业、政府与市场、政府与社会的关系,把政府不该管的事情逐步交给企业、市场和社会。

  ——深化行政审批制度改革。为解决行政审批过多过滥的问题,努力从源头上防止腐败,中国政府大力推进行政审批制度改革,全面清理了行政审批项 目并根据情况分别予以取消或作出调整。2002年到2004年,国务院分三批宣布取消和调整行政审批项目1806项。到2004年底,国务院部门的审批事 项已减少 50.1%。同时,地方政府也大幅度精简行政审批项目,规范行政审批行为。今后,中国政府将继续深化行政审批制度改革,完善审批方式,加强后续监管,建立 科学合理的行政管理和监控机制。

  ——加强社会管理和公共服务。中国政府努力完善社会管理体制和管理格局,维护社会秩序和社会稳定,促进社会公正。国务院公布《突发公共卫生事 件应急条例》、《地质灾害防治条例》等行政法规,制订《国家突发公共事件总体应急预案》等106件应急预案,不断提高应对各类突发事件的能力。为建设公共 服务型政府,中国政府更加重视回应社会的公共诉求,逐步健全和完善公共政策和公共服务体系,加大财政对教育、科技、文化、卫生等社会事业的支持力度,积极 稳妥地推进部分公共产品和服务的市场化进程。



  ——建立政务公开制度。中国政府要求各级政府部门办理的行政事项,能够公开的都要向社会公开,提高政府工作的透明度,保障人民群众对政府工作 的知情权、参与权和监督权。中国政府特别要求学校、医院和水、电、气、公交等与人民群众利益密切相关的公共部门和单位,要全面推行办事公开制度。近年来, 通过推广政府门户网站为窗口的电子政务、建立健全政府新闻发言人制度和突发事件新闻报道机制等工作,政府工作透明度不断提高。目前,中国政府正在制定旨在 增加政务管理透明度的法规,为规范政务公开提供制度保障。

  ——扩大公众对政府立法的参与程度。中国政府通过媒体公布法规草案、专家咨询论证、召开座谈会和听证会等多种方式,加快了政府立法公开化步 伐,保证公众对政府立法的有效参与。在总结经验的基础上,《全面推进依法行政实施纲要》规定和完善了有关制度和机制,努力保证政府立法能够真正集思广益、 体现民意。

  ——建立专家咨询和论证评估制度。中国各级政府在作出重大决策时,认真听取和吸纳专家的意见。近年来,国家组织专家完成了包括国家中长期科学 与技术发展规划、农业科技发展规划、中国可持续发展水资源战略、公共卫生建设规划等若干重大发展战略的研究报告,为决策提供智力支持。国务院在制定或修订 行政法规过程中,也广泛征求和吸收专家意见,努力做到符合实际和更具操作性。

  ——建立社会听证和公示制度。社会听证和公示已逐渐成为各级政府在作出决策时经常采用的方法。立法法、价格法、行政许可法和收费公路管理条例 等法律法规对举行听证作出了明确规定,一些地方政府也就行政决策的听证制定了政府规章。2002年1月,政府有关部门第一次举行全国性的行政决策听证会, 就“铁路部分旅客列车票价实行政府指导方案”进行听证,引起社会广泛关注。近年来各地举行的各类听证会达数千次,公众参与政府决策的积极性空前提高。



  中国在人民代表大会之下设立专门的审判机关和检察机关,实行审判机关与检察机关分开的司法体制。这一司法体制体现了人民当家作主的社会主义制 度性质,同时也借鉴了其他国家司法体制建设的经验。中国司法机关以事实为依据,以法律为准绳,严格依法惩治违法犯罪,保障公民合法权益。

  中国宪法和法律规定:人民法院、人民检察院依照法律独立行使审判权和检察权,对人民代表大会负责,受人民代表大会监督,不受行政机关、社会团 体和个人的干涉;司法机关在法定职权范围内独立进行活动;任何干涉司法机关依法独立行使审判权和检察权的行为,都是违反宪法和法律的。据此,中国建立了法 院依法独立行使审判权进行民事、行政和刑事审判的制度,检察院依法独立行使检察权进行批准逮捕、提起公诉、抗诉、监督法律实施的制度。

  人民法院作为国家审判机关,以司法公正为审判宗旨,按照审判独立的原则,改革和完善审判制度,通过审判工作惩处犯罪、保护人民:在刑事审判中 采用辩护制度,重证据、不轻信口供,注意保护被告人的权利;在民事审判中注意保护当事人的权利,为公民行使民主权利和当事人实现民事权利提供司法保障;在 行政审判中保护公民的合法权利不受行政机关违法行为的侵犯。2004年,全国地方各级人民法院依法一审审结刑事案件644248件,民事案件 4303744件,行政案件92192件。全国法院改判裁判确有错误的案件16967件,占全年生效判决总数的0.34%。近年来,人民法院不断完善诉讼 程序,保障公民和法人的合法权益;切实解决执行难的问题。


  人民检察院作为国家法律监督机关,担负着依法打击刑事犯罪、查办国家工作人员贪污贿赂和渎职侵权等职务犯罪的职责,并依法履行对诉讼活动的法 律监督职责,维护司法公正和法制统一。在对刑事诉讼的法律监督中,全面开展立案监督、侦查活动监督、审判活动监督和刑罚执行监督,坚持打击犯罪与保障人权 并重。在对民事诉讼和对行政诉讼的监督中,平等保护诉讼主体的合法权益,重点监督严重违反法定程序,贪赃枉法、徇私舞弊导致裁判不公的案件。近年来,检察 机关全面推行检务公开,建立了诉讼参与人权利义务告知制度,不起诉案件、刑事申诉、民事行政抗诉案件的公开审查制度,以及保障律师在刑事诉讼中依法执业的 工作机制,切实保障司法公正。2004年,检察机关对依法不应当逮捕的嫌疑人决定不准逮捕68676人;作出不起诉决定26994人;对侦查机关不应当立 案而立案的,纠正2699件;裁定提出抗诉的刑事判决3063件;裁定提出抗诉的民事行政判决13218件,提出再审检察建议4333件;立案复查刑事申 诉案件 5569件,改变原处理决定786件。



  ——公开审判制度。中国宪法和有关法律规定了人民法院的公开审判制度。近年来,最高人民法院要求各级法院必须严格依法公开审判,做到公开开 庭,公开举证、质证,所有案件公开宣判。各级法院进一步强化公开审判制度,除法律规定不应当公开审理的案件外,一律实行公开审理。对公开开庭审理的案件预 先公告,允许普通公民和新闻媒体记者旁听审理过程。人民法院还主动邀请人大代表和政协委员旁听公开审理,保障人大代表监督和政协委员考察司法活动。

  ——人民陪审员制度。新中国成立之初,国家即在相关法律中规定了人民陪审员制度。此后在人民法院组织法等法律中,全面规定了人民陪审员制度。 2004年 8月全国人民代表大会常务委员会通过《关于完善人民陪审员制度的决定》,对陪审员参加审判的范围、陪审员的条件、陪审员的产生、陪审员的权利义务等事项进 一步作出明确规定。按照法律和有关规定,人民法院认真执行人民陪审员制度,确保人民对司法活动的直接参与和监督。

  ——人民监督员制度。实行人民监督员制度,将检察工作置于人民群众的有效监督之下,体现了诉讼民主的要求。从2003年10月起, 中国检察机关开始在全国10个省(自治区、直辖市)推行人民监督员制度试点工作。此后,这项改革措施扩大至全国86%的检察院。人民监督员由机关、团体、 企事业单位推荐产生,主要职责是对检察机关办理直接立案侦查案件中拟作撤案、不起诉处理以及犯罪嫌疑人不服逮捕决定的案件进行独立评议,提出监督意见。同 时还可以应邀参加人民检察院查办职务犯罪案件工作的其他执法检查活动,对于发现的违法违纪问题,可以提出处理建议和意见。截至2004年底,全国共选任人 民监督员18962人,监督结案 3341件。

  ——律师制度。1996年颁布的律师法初步确立了中国特色律师制度的基本框架,对律师在司法程序、行政程序以及其他社会生活中的活动权利义务 作出规定。截至2004年底,中国执业律师共有11.8万多人,律师事务所11691个;律师事务所也由单一的国资所变成合伙所、国资所、合作所等多种律 师事务所并存,且合伙制律师所占总数的68.6%。有17个国家的148个外国律师事务所驻华代表处获准在中国境内执业,香港特别行政区也在内地设立了 48个律师事务所代表处。2004年,全国律师办理诉讼案件150多万件,非诉法律事务80多万件。律师制度的建立和健全,使律师能够有效地运用法律手段 维护当事人的合法权益和法律的正确实施,维护社会公平和正义。

  ━━法律援助制度。法律援助是保障困难群体合法权益、实现司法公正的重要措施。中国自1994年起开始探索建立有中国特色的法律援助制度。刑 事诉讼法、律师法等法律规定了法律援助制度的地位。2003年 9月开始实施的《法律援助条例》,明确了法律援助制度的基本框架。截至2004年底,全国各地已建立政府法律援助机构3023个,其中县区级地方占 2628个,初步形成了纵向到农村、横向基本覆盖各类困难群体的法律援助机构网络。全国有法律援助专职人员10458名,其中4768人为职业律师。各级 政府财政对法律援助经费的投入逐年加大,从1999年的1869万元增加到2004年的21712万元,年增长率达212%。目前,中央和省级财政对贫困 地区法律援助的转移支付制度正在建立。十年来,全国各地法律援助机构组织律师、基层法律服务工作者、自愿者共办理各类法律援助案件110多万件,160余 万人获得了法律援助服务。近年来,还有许多社会团体、民间组织、高等法学院校参与了法律援助工作。

  ━━人民调解制度。人民调解,是在依法设立的人民调解委员会的主持下,在纠纷当事人自愿的基础上,以国家法律、法规、规章、政策和社会公德为 依据,通过充分说理、耐心疏导、消除隔阂,帮助当事人就纠纷的解决达成协议。目前,全国已建立人民调解委员会86万多个,有人民调解员660万人,平均每 年调解各类民间纠纷约600万件,调解成功率达 95%以上。

  为进一步适应依法治国和构建社会主义和谐社会的要求,中国正按照公正司法和严格执法的要求,完善司法机关的机构设置、职权划分和管理制度,进 一步健全权责明确、相互配合、相互制约、高效运行的司法体制,从制度上保障审判机关和检察机关依法独立公正地行使审判权和检察权,更好地维护司法权威,维 护人民群众的民主权利和合法权益,维护社会的公平和正义。



  中国的社会主义民主政治符合中国的国情,保证了人民以国家和社会主人的身份充分发挥建设国家、管理国家的积极性、主动性和创造性,不断推动中 国的经济发展和社会全面进步。同时,中国共产党和中国人民也清醒地看到,虽然中国社会主义民主政治建设取得了巨大成就,但仍有许多需要克服和解决的问题。 这主要表现在:民主制度还不够健全,人民在社会主义市场经济条件下当家作主管理国家和社会事务、管理经济和文化事业的权利在某些方面还没有得到充分实现; 有法不依、执法不严、违法不究的现象依然存在;官僚主义作风、腐败现象在一些部门和地方滋生和蔓延;对权力运行进行制约和监督的有效机制有待进一步完善; 全社会的民主观念和法律意识有待进一步提高;公民有序的政治参与尚需扩大。中国的民主政治建设还有很长的路要走,这将是一个不断完善和发展的历史过程。


  一百多年以来中国人民为争取实现民主而进行的艰辛探索和奋斗,特别是中国社会主义民主政治建设的成功实践,使中国共产党和中国人民深刻地认识 到,中国的民主政治建设一定要从中国的实际出发,总结自己的实践经验,珍重自己的实践成果,同时借鉴其他国家政治文明的有益经验和成果,但绝不能照搬别国 政治制度的模式。


  ━━坚持中国共产党的领导、人民当家作主和依法治国的有机统一。这是中国发展社会主义民主政治最重要、最根本的原则。中国共产党的领导是人民 当家作主和依法治国的根本保证,人民当家作主是社会主义民主政治的本质要求,依法治国是中国共产党领导人民治理国家的基本方略。在中国民主政治建设的实践 进程中,只有坚持这三者的有机统一,才能保证中国民主政治建设坚持正确方向,实现社会主义民主政治的制度化、规范化和程序化。 ━━发挥社会主义制度的特点和优势。中国社会主义制度的最大特点和优势在于:在中国共产党的领导下,各族人民当家作主,充分发挥建设社会主义国家的积极 性、主动性、创造性,为实现社会主义现代化和中华民族的伟大复兴团结一心,共同奋斗。坚持这一特点和优势,是亿万中国人民掌握自己的命运,创造更加美好幸 福生活,建设富强、民主、文明的现代化国家的根本保证。

  ━━有利于社会稳定、经济发展和人民生活水平的不断提高。社会稳定、经济发展和人民生活水平不断提高,是人民当家作主的重要目的,也是人民当 家作主的必要条件。一个国家的政治发展、经济发展、文化发展是互为条件的。社会不稳定,经济就不能顺利发展。发展的目的,是使人民共享发展的成果。中国共 产党和中国政府将紧紧抓住经济建设这个中心不动摇,为不断提高社会主义民主政治的实现程度和水平创造更加雄厚的物质文化基础。


  ━━符合渐进有序发展的客观规律。中国社会主义民主政治建设是一个不断提高人民当家作主的实现程度和水平的历史过程。完备的民主形态是不可能 一蹴而就的。中国共产党和中国人民坚定不移地推进社会主义物质文明、政治文明、精神文明与和谐社会建设的全面协调发展,不断研究民主政治建设的新情况新问 题,探索和创造实现人民当家作主的新机制新方式,按社会主义民主政治发展的客观规律,有领导、有步骤、有秩序地发展社会主义民主。

  社会主义制度在中国的确立和发展只有几十年,与人类历史上其他社会制度相比,时间还很短。不断完善和发展社会主义民主政治,使人民日益充分地 享有和行使当家作主的权利,是中国共产党和中国人民坚定不移的奋斗目标。在当前和今后一个时期,中国共产党和中国政府将通过积极稳妥地推进政治体制改革, 坚持和完善社会主义民主制度,加强和健全社会主义法制,改革和完善中国共产党的领导方式和执政方式,改革和完善政府决策机制,推进行政管理体制改革,推进 司法体制改革,深化干部人事制度改革,加强对权力的制约和监督,努力维护社会稳定,促进经济发展和社会全面进步。