Notice on Controlling the Scope of Housing Demolition and Relocation in Cities and Towns and Tightening Up Demolition and Relocation Management (CECC Full Translation)


The following is a translation prepared by the Congressional-Executive Commission on China of the "Notice on Controlling the Scope of Housing Demolition and Relocation in Cities and Towns and Tightening Up Demolition and Relocation Management" issued by the PRC State Council General Office on June 6, 2004. The Chinese text follows.

Notice on Controlling the Scope of Housing Demolition and Relocation in Cities and Towns and Tightening Up Demolition and Relocation Management     

No. 46  (2004)

To people’s governments in each province, autonomous region, and centrally administered city and all ministries, commissions, and organs under the State Council:

Strengthening housing demolition and relocation (Note 1) management work in cities and towns has an impact on the effective implementation of the central government’s macroeconomic policies, the direct personal interests of residents in cities and towns, and social stability.   Presently, China’s urban construction industry has developed rapidly, but in the area of housing demolition in cities and towns, there are a number of outstanding problems: some local governments have not taken a correct view of official achievement and have blindly enlarged the scope of demolition; some cities have failed to implement adequate measures for housing demolition compensation and resettlement and artificially reduced standards for compensation and resettlement; some have even abused official power and illegally engaged in forced demolitions.  These phenomena not only seriously violate the legal rights of residents in cities and towns and trigger large numbers of petitions by the masses, influencing social stability, but they also cause over-investment in certain geographic areas and industries.  In order to implement the policy decisions of Party Central and the State Council on strengthening and perfecting macroeconomic regulation and to promote social stability and the healthy development of construction in cities and towns, with the consent of the State Council, notice on relevant issues in progressively strengthening housing demolition work is given as follows:

1.  Rectify the guiding philosophy of housing demolition in cities and towns and uphold the legal rights and interests of the masses.  Comprehensively implement the important thinking of the “Three Represents” and apply a scientific notion of “development” and a proper view of official achievement to guide the work of urban construction and housing demolition.  Strictly in accordance with overall city plans and construction plans, curb and correct “major demolition, major construction” acts of blindly following others to achieve quick success and instant benefits that exist in construction and housing demolition in cities and towns.  Earnestly implement the Center’s policy measures on macroeconomic regulation and, according to economic development levels, ability to bear social burdens, and resident income levels, reasonably set the scope of demolition and construction; progressively improve laws and regulations and standardize demolition behavior; implement management responsibility, strengthen supervision and inspection, manage strictly in accordance with the law and expand the investigation and prosecution of cases involving violations of the law and regulations; resolutely correct all types of behavior involving infringements on the interests of the masses that take place in the course of housing demolition in cities and towns; and safeguard the legal rights and interest of residents and peasants in cities and towns and preserve social stability by correctly guiding the masses to support legal demolition work.  

2.  Strictly formulate demolition plans and reasonably control the scope of demolition.  The program and plan for housing demolition in cities and towns must conform to  overall city plans, controlling detailed plans and construction plans, and preservation plans for famous historical and cultural cities and districts.  City and county people’s governments should take the actual economic and social development level of their locales as a starting point and put together mid and long-term housing demolition programs and annual plans.  After provincial-level construction management departments, jointly with development reform and planning departments, have issued approvals, city and county governments should report them to the local people’s congress standing committee and the next-level people’s government for filing.   Each locale must strictly control the scope of land requisition, protect the interests of peasants and residents in cities in towns in practice, and earnestly correct infringements on the interests of residents [that occur in] the course of housing demolition in cities and towns and infringements of peasant interests [that occur in] in the course of land requisitions.  The Ministry of Construction, in cooperation with other relevant departments, shall adopt and implement measures to strictly control the total area subject to housing demolition and guarantee that the total area subject to housing demolition this year is clearly smaller than last year.  In areas where demolition conflicts and related disputes are relatively concentrated, outside of projects involving energy, transportation, hydropower, major urban public infrastructure, and other major construction projects, major social development projects, the reconstruction of condemned houses, and projects involving affordable and low-cost housing, demolition shall be totally stopped and resources redirected to solve existing demolition problems.  Local governments must not expand the scope of demolition without authorization by violating legal procedures or legal provisions, substituting government meeting records and documents for legally required demolition permits and important documents, or changing plans.        

3.  Strictly adhere to demotion procedures, ensure that demolition is open, fair, and impartial. Vigorously promote the standardization of demolition management.  All demolition projects must be carried out in accordance with the powers and procedures provided in the “Urban Housing Demolition Management Regulations” (State Council Order No. 305) and the “Guidance Opinion on Urban Housing Demolition Appraisal” (Ministry of Construction (2003) No. 234), etc., and must strictly carry out procedures for housing demolition permit application, notification, appraisal, agreement, and other matters.  When agreement can’t be reached, hearings, administrative adjudication, preservation of evidence, and other procedures must be strictly carried out in accordance with the provisions of the “Urban Housing Demolition Administrative Adjudication Work Rules” (Ministry of Construction (2003) No. 252).  In particular, the system of notification of demolition appraisal results must be implemented, and the openness, fairness, and impartiality of demolition must be ensured.  Engineering projects constructed with government funds must also be carried out strictly in accordance with procedures.

4.  Strengthen management of demolition units and personnel and standardize demolition behavior.  Strengthen the management of qualifications for demolition work and strictly tighten up market access.  For all demolition engineering projects, the method of posting for bid or commission must be used to award [the project] to a construction unit with the appropriate qualifications to conduct demolition.  Progressively standardize demolition commissions and prohibit the adoption of the “all-around contract” for demolition expenses to carry out demolition.   Housing appraisal organizations must reasonably set market valuations and prices according to relevant regulations and the location, use, building area, etc.  Those persons who engage in demolition and their corresponding work units should strictly implement laws and regulations, strictly prohibit uncivilized and illegal demolitions, strictly prohibit the application of methods such as cutting off electricity, gas, or heat, blocking traffic, and other tactics to force residents subject to demolition  to move.  Local people’s government at each level and corresponding departments must strengthen the education and cultivation of people who conduct demolition, continuously enhance observance of law and discipline, and improve professional quality.    

5.  Conduct administration strictly according to law, correctly carry out professional duties.   Local people’s governments at each level shall progressively shift functions and achieve a separation of government affairs and government enterprise.  Demolition companies subordinate to ordinary government departments must completely sever links with the departments.  Government departments must extract themselves from prior housing demolitions they organized directly, carry out administration strictly in accordance with the law, implement a “separation of demolition and management,” achieve a fundamental shift in housing demolition management from stressing and relying on administrative methods to stressing and relying on legal methods, and strictly prohibit the transfer of examination and approval authority for demolitions.  Tighten up the issuance of demolition permits.  Projects that violate city plans and controlling detailed plans or that do not have demolition plans, construction project approval documents, construction land use plan permits, land use approval documents for state-owned land, or demolition compensation funds, or that have not implemented resettlement programs, must not be issued demolition permits. Strictly prohibit recovering land use rights and directly supplying land and issuing construction land use approval documents to projects that have not yet [paid] resettlement subsidies.  Government administrative organs must neither interfere with nor forcibly set demolition compensation standards, and may not directly participate or interfere in the activities that are undertaken by the person who conducts the demolition.  The power of forced demolition must be exercised correctly and in accordance with the law.  

6.  Strengthen oversight of demolition compensation funds and implement demolition resettlement plans.  Reasonable demolition compensation is the foundation for upholding the legal rights and interests of those subject to demolition and conducting demolition work.  Demolition units must properly respect the wishes of property owners in their choices regarding property exchange, monetary compensation, rental housing, and other matters and must not accommodate the small number of property owners with unreasonable demands.  For all demolition projects, regardless of whether they are projects for the public interest or projects operated for investment purposes, demolition compensation funds must be delivered promptly, special bank accounts must be established, funds must be specially earmarked, and the compensation quotas must be paid to the people subject to demolition.  A project’s future profit, institutional capital commitments, or other funds that have not yet been realized may not be used as the source of demolition funds.  All locales must provide, within the scope of reasonable demolitions that have already been set, demolition resettlement and transfer plans with quality standards, reasonable prices, and suitable housing.  Bring those households with difficult circumstances that are affected by demolition into overall arrangements for housing guarantees in cities and towns and ensure their basic housing needs.  

7. Conduct demolition letters and visits work well in practice and safeguard social stability.  Conducting “letters and visits” work well is an important way to accept the supervision of the masses and protect the legal rights and interests of those subject to demolition.  All locales must establish a system of job responsibilities for demolition “letters and visits” work, and in particular must establish and perfect a system of job responsibility for preliminary letters and visits work as well as a mechanism for organizing, investigating, and mediating demolition disputes and contradictions.  Promptly resolve problems and reasonable demands made known by the masses and actively diffuse demolition disputes and contradictions.  In areas with a relatively large number of demolition petitions, comprehensively sift through demolition petition issues and understand the real situation regarding important and universal issues complained about.  Important leaders in local people’s governments must personally organize study and promptly adopt focusing measures, formulate concrete plans for resolution, identify responsible units and individuals, and resolve problems within a set time.  At the same time, with respect to the unreasonable demands of some people subject to demolition, do not make promises contrary to regulations or recklessly set precedents, and guard against the harmful effects of “the squeaky wheel getting greased.”   The work of creating channels for collective petitions should be done well, and preparations should be made to guard against and handle mass incidents.  For the minority that demands an exorbitant price and willfully stirs up trouble, we must uphold principles and not compromise.  The minority of individuals subject to demolition that openly assemble and create disturbances or take to the streets to block traffic or attack government organs must be promptly and severely punished in accordance with the law.   

8.  Strengthen inspection and supervision, strictly handle illegal acts.  Organs at all levels that supervise construction, etc. must strengthen coordination and cooperation and enhance investigation and punishment in cases involving violations of law and regulations during housing demolition in cities and towns.  Resolutely investigate and punish the phenomena of people’s governments at each level and relevant administrative departments under their control violating city plans and examination and approval procedures, blindly enlarging the scope of demolition, and abusing authority by engaging in forced demolitions.  With regards to departments and locales where serious harm to the interest of the masses has continuously occurred in the course of demolition, leading to terrible incidents, leaders and individuals directly responsible must be called to account. Demolitions that are not carried out in accordance with provisions and procedures must be promptly corrected and the units and leaders called to account.  Administrative discipline must be administered in accordance with the law for the indiscriminate use of coercive measures that causes serious consequences.  Where such [acts] constitute crimes, criminal responsibility must be pursued in accordance with the law.  Demolition units and appraisal organizations that violate laws and regulations must be severely punished.   With respect to intentionally being in arrears on, confiscating, or misusing demolition compensation funds and other acts that violate laws and regulations, the parties and direct leaders must be strictly called to account.  Uncivilized demolition and serious violations of the interests of residents must be curbed and, where the circumstances are serious, relevant qualifications must be canceled and the behavior dealt with severely in accordance with the law.

9.  Perfect laws and regulations, strengthen policy measures.  Put demolition work in cities and towns on the path of legalization and standardization and continue to perfect relevant laws and policies.  Regarding the problems that exist in implementing the “Urban Housing Demolition and Relocation Management Regulations,” each locale must progressively formulate and perfect relevant housing demolition policies. The departments concerned shall cooperate with the Supreme People’s Court to release relevant judicial interpretations on housing demolition and standardize housing demolition administrative adjudication, coercive enforcement procedures, and related issues.  All locales will, according to national laws and regulations related to demolition work, formulate and perfect local regulations, rules, and documents.  Local regulations and rules that are inconsistent with the Urban Housing Demolition and Relocation Management Regulations must be promptly revised.  For policies that are unclear, but are genuinely reasonable, relevant policy measures must be quickly formulated and settled within a set period of time.

10.  Persist in correct guidance of public opinion and give full play to media supervision.  Television, broadcast, periodical, Internet, and other media should start from the general situation of social stability.  Expand efforts to disseminate information on reasonable advances in urban construction and the implementation of housing demolition policy as well as the standardization of demolition management and good experience and methods for upholding the legal rights and interests of the masses.  Enable the masses to fully understand demolition policy, improve the social environment for demolition in accordance with the law, and strengthen the consciousness of the masses with respect to upholding rights in accordance with the law.  At the same time, continue to expose typical cases involving serious harm to the interests of the masses.  Persist in the correct guidance of public opinion, support urban demolition work carried out in accordance with the law, pay attention to the form of information dissemination, and guard against inducing and intensifying contradictions.  

11.  Strengthen organizational leadership, implement work responsibility.  Every locale and department should make controlling the scope of housing demolition and tightening up demolition management one of the important elements of implementing the Center’s important policy measures on macroeconomic regulation and guaranteeing social stability, include these items as important duties in this year’s government work and make them explicit parts of the duties of comrades in charge, strengthen leadership, adopt effective measures, and do the corresponding work well.  Relevant organs must strengthen coordination and cooperation, establish and perfect coordinating mechanisms for demolition work units, guide work across the country, establish and perfect supervision and information-sharing systems for key areas, projects, and cases, and summarize and disseminate good experience and methods.  Each provincial-level people’s government must strengthen management and supervision of demolition work within its administrative area, strengthen regulation and control of the scope of demolition in practice, guard against and correct “major demolition and major construction,” and, in accordance with the PRC Administrative Licensing Law, standardize city and county demolition management departments and duties.  Each city and county people’s government must carry the burden of construction and demolition work in cities and towns strictly in accordance with the law, act according to its capability, and conduct demolition work in cities and towns by persisting in implementation of macroeconomic policy measures and upholding the interests of the masses to a high degree.  

The people’s governments of each province, autonomous region, and centrally administered municipality will implement and report the situation to the State Council before late October 2004 and at the same time sending a copy to the Ministry of Construction.    

State Council General Office

June 6, 2004

Translation Note 1: Demolition and relocation is hereinafter referred to simply as demolition.




加强城镇房屋拆迁管理工作,关系到中央宏观调控政策的有效贯彻落实,关系到城镇居民的切身利益和社会稳定。当前,我国城市建设事业取得较快发展,但 在城镇房屋拆迁中也存在一些突出问题:一些地方政府没有树立正确的政绩观,盲目扩大拆迁规模;有的城市拆迁补偿和安置措施不落实,人为降低补偿安置标准; 有的甚至滥用行政权力,违法违规强制拆迁。这些现象不仅严重侵害城镇居民的合法权益,引发群众大量上访,影响社会稳定,也造成一些地区和行业过度投资。为 贯彻落实党中央、国务院关于加强和改善宏观调控的决策,促进城镇建设健康发展和社会稳定,经国务院同意,现就进一步加强城镇房屋拆迁工作等有关问题通知如 下:

一、端正城镇房屋拆迁指导思想,维护群众合法权益。全面贯彻”三个代表”重要思想,用科学的发展观和正确的政绩观指导城镇建设和房屋拆迁工作。严格 依照城市总体规划和建设规划,制止和纠正城镇建设和房屋拆迁中存在的急功近利、盲目攀比的大拆大建行为。认真落实中央宏观调控政策措施,根据各地的经济发 展水平、社会承受能力和居民的收入状况,合理确定拆迁规模和建设规模;进一步完善法律法规,规范拆迁行为;落实管理责任,加强监督检查;严格依法行政,加 大对违法违规案件的查处力度;坚决纠正城镇房屋拆迁中侵害人民群众利益的各种行为,维护城镇居民和农民的合法权益,正确引导群众支持依法进行的拆迁工作, 保持社会稳定。

二、严格制订拆迁计划,合理控制拆迁规模。城镇房屋拆迁规划和计划必须符合城市总体规划、控制性详细规划和建设规划,以及历史文化名城和街区保护规 划。市、县人民政府要从本地区经济社会发展的实际出发,编制房屋拆迁中长期规划和年度计划,由省级建设行政主管部门会同发展改革(计划)部门审批下达后, 由市、县人民政府报同级人大常委会和上一级人民政府备案。各地要严格控制土地征用规模,切实保护城镇居民和农民的合法权益,坚决纠正城镇房屋拆迁中侵害居 民利益和土地征用中侵害农民利益的行为。要严格控制房屋拆迁面积,确保今年全国房屋拆迁总量比去年有明显减少,由建设部会同有关部门采取措施落实。凡拆迁 矛盾和纠纷比较集中的地区,除保证能源、交通、水利、城市重大公共设施等重点建设项目,以及重大社会发展项目、危房改造、经济适用房和廉租房项目之外,一 律停止拆迁,集中力量解决拆迁遗留问题。地方政府不得违反法定程序和法律规定,以政府会议纪要或文件代替法规确定的拆迁许可要件及规划变更,擅自扩大拆迁 规模。

三、严格拆迁程序,确保拆迁公开、公正、公平。要积极推进拆迁管理规范化,所有拆迁项目都必须按照《城市房屋拆迁管理条例》(国令305号)和《城 市房屋拆迁估价指导意见》(建住房[2003]234号)等规定的权限和程序履行职责,严格执行申请房屋拆迁许可、公示、评估、订立协议等程序;对达不成 协议的,必须按照《城市房屋拆迁行政裁决工作规程》(建住房[2003]252号)的规定严格执行听证、行政裁决、证据保全等程序。特别要执行拆迁估价结 果公示制度,依照有关规定实施行政裁决听证和行政强制拆迁听证制度,确保拆迁公开、公正、公平。政府投资建设的工程也要严格按照规定的程序进行。

四、加强对拆迁单位和人员的管理,规范拆迁行为。加强对拆迁单位的资格管理,严格市场准入。所有拆迁项目工程,要通过招投标或委托的方式交由具有相 应资质的施工单位拆除。进一步规范拆迁委托行为,禁止采取拆迁费用”大包干”的方式进行拆迁。房屋价格评估机构要按照有关规定和被搬迁房屋的区位、用途、 建筑面积等,合理确定市场评估价格。拆迁人及相关单位要严格执行有关法律法规和规定,严禁野蛮拆迁、违规拆迁,严禁采取停水、停电、停气、停暖、阻断交通 等手段,强迫被拆迁居民搬迁。地方各级人民政府和有关部门要加强对拆迁人员的法制教育和培训,不断增强其遵纪守法意识,提高业务素质。

五、严格依法行政,正确履行职责。地方各级人民政府要进一步转变职能,做到政事、政企分开、凡政府有关部门所属的拆迁公司,必须与部门全部脱钩。政 府部门要从过去直接组织房屋拆迁中解脱出来,严格依法行政,实行”拆管分离”,实现拆迁管理方式从注重依靠行政手段向注重依靠法律手段的根本性转变。房屋 拆迁管理部门要认真执行拆迁许可审批程序,严禁将拆迁许可审批权下放。严格拆迁许可证的发放,对违反城市规划及控制性详细规划,没有拆迁计划、建设项目批 准文件、建设用地规划许可证、国有土地使用权批准文件,以及拆迁补偿资金、拆迁安置方案不落实的项目,不得发放拆迁许可证。严禁未经拆迁安置补偿,收回原 土地使用权而直接供应土地,并发放建设用地批准文件。政府行政机关不得干预或强行确定拆迁补偿标准,以及直接参与和干预应由拆迁人承担的拆迁活动。要依法 正确履行强制拆迁的权力。

六、加强拆迁补偿资金监管,落实拆迁安置。合理的拆迁补偿安置是维护被拆迁人合法权益、做好拆迁工作的重要基础。拆迁单位既要充分尊重被拆迁人在选 择产权交换、货币补偿、租赁房屋等方面的意愿,也不得迁就少数被拆迁人的无理要求。所有拆迁,无论是公益性项目还是经营性项目、招商引资项目,拆迁补偿资 金必须按时到位,设立专门账户,专款专用,并足额补偿给被拆迁人;不得以项目未来收益、机构资金承诺或其他不落实的资金作为拆迁资金来源。各地要按照已确 定的合理拆迁规模,提供质量合格、价格合理、户型合适的拆迁安置房和周转房。把拆迁中涉及的困难家庭纳入城镇住房保障的总体安排中,确保其基本居住需要。

七、切实做好拆迁信访工作,维护社会稳定。做好拆迁信访工作是接受群众监督、维护被拆迁人合法权益的重要方式。各地区要建立拆迁信访工作责任制,尤 其要建立和完善初信初访责任制以及拆迁纠纷矛盾排查调处机制,及时解决群众反映的问题和合理要求,积极化解拆迁纠纷和矛盾。拆迁上访较多的地区,要对拆迁 上访问题进行全面梳理,对投诉的重点问题、普遍性问题要认真摸底。地方人民政府主要领导要亲自组织研究,及时采取针对性措施,制订具体的解决方案,落实责 任单位和责任人,限期解决。区别不同情况,采取有效措施,妥善解决拆迁历史遗留问题。同时,对被拆迁人的一些不合理要求,不要作不符合规定的许愿和乱开” 口子”,防止造成”以闹取胜”的不良影响。要做好集体上访的疏导工作,防止群体性事件发生并做好处理预案。对少数要价过高,无理取闹的,要坚持原则,不能 迁就;对少数公开聚众闹事或上街堵塞交通、冲击政府机关的被拆迁人,要依法及时进行严肃处理。

八、加强监督检查,严肃处理违法违规行为。各级监察、建设等有关部门要加强协调和配合,加大对城镇房屋拆迁中违法违规案件的查处力度。对各级人民政 府及有关行政主管部门违反城市规划以及审批程序、盲目扩大拆迁规模以及滥用职权强制拆迁的现象坚决予以查处。对在拆迁中连续发生严重损害群众利益导致恶性 事件的部门和地区,要追究领导者和直接责任人的责任。对不按规定程序进行拆迁的,要及时予以纠正,并追究有关责任单位的领导责任。对滥用强制手段,造成严 重后果的,要依法给予行政纪律处分,构成犯罪的,要依法追究刑事责任。对违法违规的拆迁单位和评估机构,要依法严厉查处。对故意拖欠、挤占、挪用拆迁补偿 资金等违法违规行为,要严肃追究当事人和直接领导人的责任。对野蛮拆迁,严重侵犯居民利益的行为,要坚决制止,情节严重的,要取消其相应资格,依法严肃处 理。

九、完善法律法规,健全政策措施。要把城镇房屋拆迁工作纳入法制化和规范化的轨道,继续完善有关政策法规。针对《城市房屋拆迁管理条例》实施中存在 的问题,各地区要进一步制定和完善有关房屋拆迁的政策。有关部门要配合最高人民法院尽快出台有关房屋拆迁的司法解释,规范房屋拆迁行政裁决、强制执行程序 和有关问题;各地区要依据国家有关拆迁工作的法律法规,制定和完善地方性法规、规章和文件,对与《城市房屋拆迁管理条例》不符的,要迅速组织修订;对政策 不明确,但确属合理要求的,要抓紧制定相应的政策措施,限期处理解决。

十、坚持正确舆论导向,发挥媒体监督作用。电视、广播、报刊、网络等媒体要从社会稳定的大局出发,对各地合理推进城市建设,落实房屋拆迁政策以及规 范拆迁管理、维护群众合法权益的好经验、好做法,要加大宣传力度,使群众全面了解拆迁政策,改善依法拆迁的社会环境,增强群众依法维权的意识。同时,对严 重损害群众利益的典型案件,要继续曝光。要坚持正确的舆论导向,支持依法进行的城市拆迁工作,注意宣传方式,防止诱发和激化矛盾。

十一、加强组织领导,落实工作责任。各地区、各部门要把控制城镇房屋拆迁规模,严格拆迁管理作为落实中央宏观调控政策的重要措施和确保社会稳定的一 项重要内容,列入今年政府工作的重要任务,明确政府分管负责同志的责任,加强领导,采取有效措施,做好相关工作。有关部门要加强协调和配合,建立健全拆迁 工作部际协调机制,指导全国工作,并建立健全对重点地区、重点项目、重点案例的督查和通报制度,总结推广好的经验和做法。各省级人民政府要加强对本行政区 域拆迁工作的管理和监督,切实加强对拆迁规模的总量调控,防止和纠正大拆大建;要依照《中华人民共和国行政许可法》,规范市、县拆迁管理部门及职责。各 市、县人民政府要对城镇建设和拆迁工作负总责,严格依法行政,量力而行,从坚决贯彻宏观调控政策措施和维护人民群众利益的高度做好城镇房屋拆迁工作。